237 research outputs found

    Hyperphosphorylated FAK Delocalizes from Focal Adhesions to Membrane Ruffles

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    Cell adhesion and migration are key determinants in tumor metastasis. Adherence of tumor cell to the extracellular matrix is mediated via integrin containing focal adhesions (FAs). Binding of integrins to ECM triggers phosphorylation of two major components of FAs, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src, activating downstream signaling pathway which leads to FA disassembly and cell migration. In this paper, we analyze how phosphorylation of FAK regulates its trafficking at FAs in living human astrocytoma cells. Upon pervanadate-induced FAK phosphorylation, phosphorylated FAK appeared highly expressed at newly formed membrane ruffles. This effect was abolished in presence of the specific Src inhibitor PP2. Our findings demonstrate that upon phosphorylation, FAK delocalizes from FAs to membrane ruffles

    Common activation of canonical Wnt signaling in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

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    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is an extremely aggressive malignancy, which carries a dismal prognosis. Activating mutations of the Kras gene are common to the vast majority of human PDA. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that embryonic signaling pathway such as Hedgehog and Notch are inappropriately upregulated in this disease. The role of another embryonic signaling pathway, namely the canonical Wnt cascade, is still controversial. Here, we use gene array analysis as a platform to demonstrate general activation of the canonical arm of the Wnt pathway in human PDA. Furthermore, we provide evidence for Wnt activation in mouse models of pancreatic cancer. Our results also indicate that Wnt signaling might be activated downstream of Hedgehog signaling, which is an early event in PDA evolution. Wnt inhibition blocked proliferation and induced apoptosis of cultured adenocarcinoma cells, thereby providing evidence to support the development of novel therapeutical strategies for Wnt inhibition in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    Overexpression of the p53-inducible brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 suppresses efficiently tumour angiogenesis

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    The brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 gene has been isolated in an attempt to find fragments with p53 “functional” binding sites. As reported herein and by others, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 expression is present in some normal tissues, but is reduced or lost in tumour tissues. Such data and its particular structure prompted the hypothesis that brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 may act as a mediator in the local angiogenesis balance. We herein demonstrate that brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 over-expression suppresses tumour angiogenesis, delaying significantly the human tumour growth in immunodeficient mice. The inhibitory effect of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 was documented using our intravital microscopy system, strongly implicating brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 as a mediator in the control of tumour angiogenesis. In contrast, in vitro tumour cell proliferation was not inhibited by brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 transfection, whereas some level of cytotoxicity was assessed for endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumour samples confirmed a reduction in the microvessel density index in brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1-overexpressing tumours. At messenger level, moderate changes could be detected, involving the down-regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and collagenase-1 expression. Furthermore, brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 expression that was lost in a selection of human cancer cell lines could be restored by wild-type p53 adenoviral transfection. Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 1 should be considered for gene therapy and development of efficient drugs based on endogenous antiangiogenic molecules

    The distinct fate of smooth and rough Mycobacterium abscessus variants inside macrophages

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    Mycobacterium abscessus is a pathogenic, rapidly growing mycobacterium responsible for pulmonary and cutaneous infections in immunocompetent patients and in patients with Mendelian disorders, such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Mycobacterium abscessus is known to transition from a smooth (S) morphotype with cell surface-associated glycopeptidolipids (GPL) to a rough (R) morphotype lacking GPL. Herein, we show that M. abscessus S and R variants are able to grow inside macrophages and are present in morphologically distinct phagosomes. The S forms are found mostly as single bacteria within phagosomes characterized by a tightly apposed phagosomal membrane and the presence of an electron translucent zone (ETZ) surrounding the bacilli. By contrast, infection with the R form leads to phagosomes often containing more than two bacilli, surrounded by a loose phagosomal membrane and lacking the ETZ. In contrast to the R variant, the S variant is capable of restricting intraphagosomal acidification and induces less apoptosis and autophagy. Importantly, the membrane of phagosomes enclosing the S forms showed signs of alteration, such as breaks or partial degradation. Although not frequently encountered, these events suggest that the S form is capable of provoking phagosome–cytosol communication. In conclusion, M. abscessus S exhibits traits inside macrophages that are reminiscent of slow-growing mycobacterial species

    Oral administration of FAK inhibitor TAE226 inhibits the progression of peritoneal dissemination of colorectal cancer

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    Peritoneal dissemination is one of the most terrible types of colorectal cancer progression. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a crucial role in the biological processes of cancer, such as cell attachment, migration, proliferation and survival, all of which are essential for the progression of peritoneal dissemination. Since we and other groups have reported that the inhibition of FAK activity exhibited a potent anticancer effect in several cancer models, we hypothesized that TAE226, a novel ATP-competitive tyrosine kinase inhibitor designed to target FAK, can prevent the occurrence and progression of peritoneal dissemination. In vitro, TAE226 greatly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HCT116 colon cancer cells, while their adhesion on the matrix surface was minimally inhibited when FAK activity and expression was suppressed by TAE226 and siRNA. In vivo, when HCT116 cells were intraperitoneally inoculated in mice, the cells could attach to the peritoneum and begin to grow within 24 h regardless of the pretreatment of cells with TAE226 or FAK-siRNA, suggesting that FAK is not essential, at least for the initial integrin-matrix contact. Interestingly, the treatment of mice before and after inoculation significantly suppressed cell attachment to the peritoneum. Furthermore, oral administration of TAE226 greatly reduced the size of disseminated tumors and prolonged survival in tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, a possible strategy for inhibiting peritoneal dissemination by targeting FAK with TAE226 appears to be applicable through anti-proliferative and anti-invasion/anti-migration mechanisms
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