171,055 research outputs found

    Distilling the essence of the brand of the fens

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    The Fens are a naturally marshy region in eastern England. Most of the area was drained several centuries ago, resulting in a flat, damp, low-lying agricultural region. The Fens are a fertile arable region for grains and vegetables, containing around half of the grade 1 agricultural land in England. Despite years of promotion, the Fens are still to develop a positive destination brand and the economic impact of tourism is low compared to, say, the nearby city of Lincoln. Of 34 visitor attractions in the Fens, only four have attendances over 60,000 per year. This study examines the attributes of the Fens that form its essence in tourists√Ę‚ā¨‚ĄĘ √Ę‚ā¨ňúeyes√Ę‚ā¨‚ĄĘ, which will facilitate the positioning of the proposed area as a destination. Given that people often already have elaborate images about places, destination managers have to link even more sensitively to consumers√Ę‚ā¨‚ĄĘ prior images than do brand managers of consumer brands. The authors use a method that combines the advantages of segmentability and comparability offered by attribute-based approaches with the Gestalt-like qualities of qualitative approaches: cognitive causal mapping. The method aims to find those attributes that people believe to be inherently core to the destination brand. It elicits the causal relations people perceive to exist between a destination√Ę‚ā¨‚ĄĘs attributes. The causal map shows how and to what extent visitors perceive other attributes to flow from these core attributes. The method demonstrates how people view those attributes that make the area more authentic than attributes that have a less central position in their cognitive causal map. By consequence, these central attributes are identified as more unique for √Ę‚ā¨ŇďThe Fens√Ę‚ā¨. A pre-study was conducted in which twenty respondents (a convenience sample drawn from visitors selected by intercept sampling at two major visitor destinations: Springfield shopping centre in heart of the Fens; and in Lincoln city centre just beyond the northern edge of the Fens) were asked which attributes come to mind when thinking of √Ę‚ā¨ŇďThe Fens√Ę‚ā¨ as a destination. These served as input for the questionnaire. For the main study, a self-completion questionnaire was distributed to visitors to the two areas by again employing intercept sampling, n = 400 total (200 at each). The main attributes identified by participants as most characteristic of the Fens are: agriculture, countryside, big skies and flatland. The participants like most the features countryside, big skies, flatland, relaxed and friendly whereas they do not like a boring atmosphere. The causal relations which achieved a statistically-significant net proportion of agreement were plotted on a cognitive causal map using Hierarchical Linear Modeling, estimating average regression coefficients for the population. The most significant include:√Ę‚ā¨¬ĘThe Fens are not boring because they are friendly and have shopping and cathedrals√Ę‚ā¨¬ĘThe Fens have big skies because they have countryside and flatland√Ę‚ā¨¬ĘThe Fens are relaxed because they have countryside and big skies.The cognitive causal maps can facilitate the design of campaigns to attract more visitors in the area. For example, the feature √Ę‚ā¨ňúboring√Ę‚ā¨‚ĄĘ, which is not liked by visitors, can be mitigated by marketing communications indicating that the Fens are not boring because they are friendly and have shopping and cathedrals. Marketing communications can be designed to emphasise the most characteristic features of the Fens that are most liked, for example demonstrating that the Fens have big skies because they have countryside and flatland; and are relaxed because they have countryside and big skies.</p

    Extracting the speed of sound in the strongly interacting matter created in ultrarelativistic lead-lead collisions at the LHC

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    International audienceUltrarelativistic nuclear collisions create a strongly interacting state of hot and dense quark-gluon matter that exhibits a remarkable collective flow behavior with minimal viscous dissipation. To gain deeper insights into its intrinsic nature and fundamental degrees of freedom, we extracted the speed of sound in this medium created using lead-lead (PbPb) collisions at a center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 5.02 TeV. The data were recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 0.607 nb‚ąí1^{-1}. The measurement is performed by studying the multiplicity dependence of the average transverse momentum of charged particles emitted in head-on PbPb collisions. Our findings reveal that the speed of sound in this matter is nearly half the speed of light, with a squared value of 0.241 ¬Ī\pm 0.002 (stat) ¬Ī\pm 0.016 (syst) in natural units. The effective medium temperature, estimated using the mean transverse momentum, is 219 ¬Ī\pm 8 (syst) MeV. The measured squared speed of sound at this temperature aligns precisely with predictions from lattice quantum chromodynamic (QCD) calculations. This result provides a stringent constraint on the equation of state of the created medium and direct evidence for a deconfined QCD phase being attained in relativistic nuclear collisions

    Comparison of responses of the prescribers to some perception questions.

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    A = Antibiotic resistance is a problem for my practice. B = Inappropriate antibiotic prescribing is a problem in my practice. C = inappropriate antibiotic dispensing is a problem in my practice.</p

    An extended theory of planned behaviour for music acquisition from legal and illegal channels: conceptualisation and scale development

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    The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that determine music acquisition from legal and illegal channels. Using an extended model of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), this study investigates the relationships among five additional factors, i.e. Perceived Quality of Music, Perceived Benefits of Piracy, Price of Legitimate Music, Perceived Likelihood of Punishment and Idolisation. Furthermore, the study innovates in using TPB in a multiple channel framework. After a thorough search of the literature together with a qualitative study an initial pool of items is generated in order to capture both the traditional and the newly proposed TPB constructs. Reliability tests and exploratory factor analysis is utilised for item purification purposes. Our main results conclude in favour of the adequacy of the proposed extended TPB model.</p

    Measurement of multidifferential cross sections for dijet production in proton-proton collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 13 TeV