89 research outputs found

    Russes, slaves et soviétiques

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    Une trentaine d’articles en hommage à Roger Portal qui fut, selon l’expression d’Hélène Ahrweiler dans sa préface, « l’accoucheur de l’école française d’histoire de la Russie et de l’U.R.S.S ». Ces pages d’histoire mêlent heureusement histoire politique et histoire sociale, étude de mentalité et analyse de politique extérieure, en privilégiant tout de même le xixe et le xxe siècle, la Russie puis l’U.R.S.S., dont elles soulignent des traits saillants de l’évolution

    Distributional and regional economic impact of energy taxes in Belgium

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    We analyse the macroeconomic and distributional effects of increased oil excises in Belgium by combining a regional Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model with a microsimulation framework that exploits the rich detail of household-level data. The link between the CGE model and the micro level is top-down, feeding changes in commodity prices, factor returns and employment by sector into a microsimulation model. The results suggest that policymakers face an equity-efficiency trade-off driven by the choice of revenue recycling options. When the additional revenue is used to raise welfare transfers to households, the reform is beneficial for lower income groups, but output levels decrease in all regions. However, when the energy tax revenue is used to lower distortionary labour taxes, the tax shift is slightly regressive. In this case, national GDP is hardly affected but regional production levels diverge. The impact of the environmental tax reform on income distribution depends strongly on changes in factor prices and welfare payments, whereas sector composition is an important determinant for regional impact variation.JRC.J.1-Economics of Climate Change, Energy and Transpor

    Climate Impacts in Europe - The JRC PESETA II Project

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    The objective of the JRC PESETA II project is to gain insights into the sectoral and regional patterns of climate change impacts in Europe by the end of this century. The study uses a large set of climate model runs and impact categories (ten impacts: agriculture, energy, river floods, droughts, forest fires, transport infrastructure, coasts, tourism, habitat suitability of forest tree species and human health). The project integrates biophysical direct climate impacts into a macroeconomic economic model, which enables the comparison of the different impacts based on common metrics (household welfare and economic activity). Under the reference simulation the annual total damages would be around €190 billion/year, almost 2% of EU GDP. The geographical distribution of the climate damages is very asymmetric with a clear bias towards the southern European regions. More than half of the overall annual EU damages are estimated to be due to the additional premature mortality (€120 billion). Moving to a 2°C world would reduce annual climate damages by €60 billion, to €120 billion (1.2% of GDP)

    GEM-E3 Model Documentation

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    The computable general equilibrium model GEM-E3 has been used in a large set of climate policy applications supporting Commission policy proposals during the last decade, as well as in other environmental and economic policy areas. It can be considered a multi-purpose macroeconomic model, designed to estimate the effects of sector-specific policies on the economy as a whole. The main purpose of this publication is to provide extensive documentation of the model's equations and its underlying databases, in order to offer to the broader audience an accurate description of the model characteristics.JRC.J.1-Economics of Climate Change, Energy and Transpor

    A comparability analysis of global burden sharing GHG reduction scenarios

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    The distribution of the mitigation burden across countries is a key issue regarding the post-2012 global climate policies. This article explores the economic implications of alternative allocation rules, an assessment made in the run-up to the COP15 in Copenhagen (December 2009). We analyse the comparability of the allocations across countries based on four single indicators: GDP per capita, GHG emissions per GDP, GHG emission trends in the recent past, and population growth. The multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model of the global economy, GEM-E3, is used for that purpose. Further, the article also compares a perfect carbon market without transaction costs with the case of a gradually developing carbon market, i.e. a carbon market with (gradually diminishing) transaction costs

    Top-down and bottom-up modelling to support low carbon scenarios: climate policy implications

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    Bottom-up (BU) and top-down (TD) models have been supporting climate policies, identifying the options required to meet greenhouse gases (GHG) abatement targets and evaluating its economic impact. Some studies have shown that GHG mitigation options from economic TD and technology BU models tend to vary, being different baseline scenarios one recognised divergence factors. This article explores the use of TIMES_PT (BU) and the general equilibrium GEM-E3_PT (TD), assessing the extent of their differences in mitigation options when calibrated to a common baseline scenario and how different outcomes are relevant for domestic climate policy making. Three low carbon scenarios were generated until 2050, with different GHG reduction targets for the case study of Portugal. The models present close mitigation options, allocating the larger mitigation potential to energy supply. However, they suggest different in mitigation options for end-use sectors. GEM-E3_PT focus more on energy efficiency, while TIMES_PT relies on carbon intensity decrease by shifting to electricity. Common baseline scenario cannot be ignored but the models inherent characteristics’ are the key factor for different outcomes, highlighting different mitigation recommendations.JRC.F.6-Energy systems evaluatio

    Economic modelling of climate impacts: A partial review.

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    Th is paper reviews the economic modelling of climate change impacts, using integrated assessment models (IAMs). IAMs consider the most relevant interactions and feedback mechanisms of the human-climate system and integrate various relevant academic disciplines, ranging from climate modeling to economics. Our paper distinguishes two approaches: First, the reduced-form approach considers the direct link between climate change and economic impacts. Th at approach is highly aggregated or top-down as it does not consider in detail the cause-eff ect mechanisms between climate change and specifi c impacts. Second, the bottom-up approach models the specifi c framework and channels between climate change and its impacts on a specifi c area. Finally, the paper discusses ways to further improve the bottom-up methodology.JRC.J.1-Economics of Climate Change, Energy and Transpor

    A Comparability Analysis of Global Burden Sharing GHG Reduction Scenarios

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    The distribution of the mitigation burden across countries is a key issue regarding the post-2012 global climate policies. This article explores the economic implications of alternative allocation rules, an assessment made in the run-up to the COP15 in Copenhagen (December 2009). We analyse the comparability of the allocations across countries based on four single indicators: GDP per capita, GHG emissions per GDP, population growth, and the GHG emission trend in the recent past. The multi-sectoral computable general equilibrium model of the global economy, GEM-E3, is used for that purpose. Further, the article also compares a perfect carbon market without transaction costs with the case of a gradually developing carbon market, i.e. a carbon market with (gradually diminishing) transaction costs.JRC.J.1-Economics of Climate Change, Energy and Transpor

    The EU climate policy perspectives and their implications for Belgium

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