126 research outputs found

    Heterologous Expression of Full-Length and Truncated Human ZIP4 Zinc Transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    The human (h) transporter hZIP4 is the primary Zn2+ importer in the intestine. hZIP4 is also expressed in a variety of organs such as the pancreas and brain. Dysfunction of hZIP4 can result in the Zn2+ deficiency disease acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). AE can disrupt digestive and immune system homeostasis. A limited number of hZIP4 expression strategies have hindered increasing knowledge about this essential transmembrane protein. Here, we report the heterologous expression of hZIP4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Both a wild-type and a mutant S. cerevisiae strain, in which the endogenous Zn2+ transporters were deleted, were used to test the expression and localization of an hZIP4–GFP fusion protein. A full-length hZIP4–GFP and a truncated membrane-domain-only (mhZIP4–GFP) protein were observed to be present in the plasma membrane in yeast

    Analysis of \u3cem\u3eE. coli\u3c/em\u3e and Total Coliform in Pond 501 West in Coastal Carolina University

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    E. Coli is a bacterial group linked to gastrointestinal illness, while Total Coliforms are usually linked to harmful bacteria and other specific sources of pollution. Monitoring small waterways for pollutants is important because of the runoff into major waterways, which Urbanization increases. The Conway area has experienced a lot of urbanization, so keeping its waterways healthy is a top priority. Using the Coliscan Easygel PLUS Media method, total coliform and E. Coli levels in the sampled waterways of 501 West were tested. From October 13, 2011 to November 16th, 2020, 249 samples were taken from the sample site. The average E. Coli and Total Coliform CFU levels were 287 /100mL and 1,143 /100mL respectively. E. Coli\u27s average was less than the SC DHEC and EPA (2012) standards, though many samples were outliers that well exceeded those standards. Total Coliform\u27s average managed to stay below the SC DHEC and EPA (2012) standards

    The emerging role of zinc transporters in cellular homeostasis and cancer

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    Zinc is an essential micronutrient that plays a role in the structural or enzymatic functions of many cellular proteins. Cellular zinc homeostasis involves the opposing action of two families of metal transporters: the ZnT (SLC30) family that functions to reduce cytoplasmic zinc concentrations and the ZIP (SLC39) family that functions to increase cytoplasmic zinc concentrations. Fluctuations in intracellular zinc levels mediated by these transporter families affect signaling pathways involved in normal cell development, growth, differentiation and death. Consequently, changes in zinc transporter localization and function resulting in zinc dyshomeostasis have pathophysiological effects. Zinc dyshomeostasis has been implicated in the progression of cancer. Here we review recent progress toward understanding the structural basis for zinc transport by ZnT and ZIP family proteins, as well as highlight the roles of zinc as a signaling molecule in physiological conditions and in various cancers. As zinc is emerging as an important signaling molecule in the development and progression of cancer, the ZnT and ZIP transporters that regulate cellular zinc homeostasis are promising candidates for targeted cancer therapy

    Strategies for carbohydrate model building, refinement and validation

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    Sugars are the most stereochemically intricate family of biomolecules and present substantial challenges to anyone trying to understand their nomenclature, reactions or branched structures. Current crystallographic programs provide an abstraction layer allowing inexpert structural biologists to build complete protein or nucleic acid model components automatically either from scratch or with little manual intervention. This is, however, still not generally true for sugars. The need for carbohydrate-specific building and validation tools has been highlighted a number of times in the past, concomitantly with the introduction of a new generation of experimental methods that have been ramping up the production of protein-sugar complexes and glycoproteins for the past decade. While some incipient advances have been made to address these demands, correctly modelling and refining carbohydrates remains a challenge. This article will address many of the typical difficulties that a structural biologist may face when dealing with carbohydrates, with an emphasis on problem solving in the resolution range where X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy are expected to overlap in the next decade

    Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast

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    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lacking. Here, we present the first genome-scale model for the yeast secretory machinery which captures the knowledge generated through more than 50 years of research. The model is based on the concept of a Protein Specific Information Matrix (PSIM: characterized by seven PTMs features). An algorithm was developed which mimics secretory machinery and assigns each secretory protein to a particular secretory class that determines the set of PTMs and transport steps specific to each protein. Protein abundances were integrated with the model in order to gain system level estimation of the metabolic demands associated with the processing of each specific protein as well as a quantitative estimation of the activity of each component of the secretory machinery

    Re-introduction of transmembrane serine residues reduce the minimum pore diameter of channelrhodopsin-2.

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    Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a microbial-type rhodopsin found in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Under physiological conditions, ChR2 is an inwardly rectifying cation channel that permeates a wide range of mono- and divalent cations. Although this protein shares a high sequence homology with other microbial-type rhodopsins, which are ion pumps, ChR2 is an ion channel. A sequence alignment of ChR2 with bacteriorhodopsin, a proton pump, reveals that ChR2 lacks specific motifs and residues, such as serine and threonine, known to contribute to non-covalent interactions within transmembrane domains. We hypothesized that reintroduction of the eight transmembrane serine residues present in bacteriorhodopsin, but not in ChR2, will restrict the conformational flexibility and reduce the pore diameter of ChR2. In this work, eight single serine mutations were created at homologous positions in ChR2. Additionally, an endogenous transmembrane serine was replaced with alanine. We measured kinetics, changes in reversal potential, and permeability ratios in different alkali metal solutions using two-electrode voltage clamp. Applying excluded volume theory, we calculated the minimum pore diameter of ChR2 constructs. An analysis of the results from our experiments show that reintroducing serine residues into the transmembrane domain of ChR2 can restrict the minimum pore diameter through inter- and intrahelical hydrogen bonds while the removal of a transmembrane serine results in a larger pore diameter. Therefore, multiple positions along the intracellular side of the transmembrane domains contribute to the cation permeability of ChR2