604 research outputs found

    Small molecule inhibition of protein depalmitoylation as a new approach towards downregulation of oncogenic Ras signalling

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    AbstractThe H- and N-Ras GTPases are prominent examples of proteins, whose localizations and signalling capacities are regulated by reversible palmitoylations and depalmitoylations. Recently, the novel small molecule inhibitor palmostatin B has been described to inhibit Ras depalmitoylation and to revert the phenotype of oncogenic HRasG12V transformed cells. This demonstrates that palmostatin B is a tool to investigate the biochemical effects of the inhibition of cellular Ras depalmitoylation on Ras signalling, which is relevant for oncology. Furthermore, it is to be expected that many proteins, of which the signalling capacities depend on reversible palmitoylation, will be discovered in the near future. This stresses the urgent need for further development of small molecule inhibitors of palmitoylation and depalmitoylation in order to study their functions in cellular signalling

    Novel Design Strategies to Enhance the Efficiency of Proteolysis Targeting Chimeras

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    Despite the success of drug discovery over the past decades, many potential drug targets still remain intractable for small molecule modulation. The development of proteolysis targeting chimeras (PROTACs) that trigger degradation of the target proteins provides a conceptually novel approach to address drug targets that remained previously elusive. Currently, the main challenge of PROTAC development is the identification of efficient, tissue- and cell-selective PROTAC molecules with good drug-likeness and favorable safety profiles. This review focuses on strategies to enhance the effectiveness and selectivity of PROTACs. We provide a comprehensive summary of recently reported PROTAC design strategies and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies. Future perspectives for PROTAC design will also be discussed

    Histone acetyltransferases:challenges in targeting bi-substrate enzymes

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    Histone acetyltransferases (HATs) are epigenetic enzymes that install acetyl groups onto lysine residues of cellular proteins such as histones, transcription factors, nuclear receptors, and enzymes. HATs have been shown to play a role in diseases ranging from cancer and inflammatory diseases to neurological disorders, both through acetylations of histone proteins and non-histone proteins. Several HAT inhibitors, like bi-substrate inhibitors, natural product derivatives, small molecules, and protein-protein interaction inhibitors, have been developed. Despite their potential, a large gap remains between the biological activity of inhibitors in in vitro studies and their potential use as therapeutic agents. To bridge this gap, new potent HAT inhibitors with improved properties need to be developed. However, several challenges have been encountered in the investigation of HATs and HAT inhibitors that hinder the development of new HAT inhibitors. HATs have been shown to function in complexes consisting of many proteins. These complexes play a role in the activity and target specificity of HATs, which limits the translation of in vitro to in vivo experiments. The current HAT inhibitors suffer from undesired properties like anti-oxidant activity, reactivity, instability, low potency, or lack of selectivity between HAT subtypes and other enzymes. A characteristic feature of HATs is that they are bi-substrate enzymes that catalyze reactions between two substrates: the cofactor acetyl coenzyme A (Ac-CoA) and a lysine-containing substrate. This has important-but frequently overlooked-consequences for the determination of the inhibitory potency of small molecule HAT inhibitors and the reproducibility of enzyme inhibition experiments. We envision that a careful characterization of molecular aspects of HATs and HAT inhibitors, such as the HAT catalytic mechanism and the enzyme kinetics of small molecule HAT inhibitors, will greatly improve the development of potent and selective HAT inhibitors and provide validated starting points for further development towards therapeutic agents.</p

    Epigenetic regulation in macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF)-mediated signaling in cancer and inflammation

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    Epigenetic mechanisms are important for the regular development and maintenance of the tissue-specific expression of cytokine genes. One of the crucial cytokines involved in cancer and inflammation is macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), which triggers the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways by binding to CD74 and other receptors. Altered expression of this cytokine and altered activity states of the connected pathways are linked to inflammatory disease and cancer. Therapeutic strategies based on epigenetic mechanisms have the potential to regulate MIF-mediated signaling in cancer and inflammation

    The Process and Strategy for Developing Selective Histone Deacetylase 3 Inhibitors

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    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic drug targets that have gained major scientific attention. Inhibition of these important regulatory enzymes is used to treat cancer, and has the potential to treat a host of other diseases. However, currently marketed HDAC inhibitors lack selectivity for the various HDAC isoenzymes. Several studies have shown that HDAC3, in particular, plays an important role in inflammation and degenerative neurological diseases, but the development of selective HDAC3 inhibitors has been challenging. This review provides an up-to-date overview of selective HDAC3 inhibitors, and aims to support the development of novel HDAC3 inhibitors in the future

    Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC 3) as emerging drug target in NF-kappa B-mediated inflammation

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    Activation of inflammatory gene expression is regulated, among other factors, by post-translational modifications of histone proteins. The most investigated type of histone modifications is lysine acetylations. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) remove acetylations from lysines, thereby influencing (inflammatory) gene expression. Intriguingly, apart from histones, HDACs also target non-histone proteins. The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) pathway is an important regulator in the expression of numerous inflammatory genes, and acetylation plays a crucial role in regulating its responses. Several studies have shed more light on the role of HDAC 1-3 in inflammation with a particular pro-inflammatory role for HDAC 3. Nevertheless, the HDAC-NF-kappa B interactions in inflammatory signalling have not been fully understood. An important challenge in targeting the regulatory role of HDACs in the NF-kappa B pathway is the development of highly potent small molecules that selectively target HDAC iso-enzymes. This review focuses on the role of HDAC 3 in (NF-kappa B-mediated) inflammation and NF-kappa B lysine acetylation. In addition, we address the application of frequently used small molecule HDAC inhibitors as an approach to attenuate inflammatory responses, and their potential as novel therapeutics. Finally, recent progress and future directions in medicinal chemistry efforts aimed at HDAC 3-selective inhibitors are discussed.</p

    Rational Design in Photopharmacology with Molecular Photoswitches

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    Photopharmacology is an attractive approach for achieving targeted drug action with the use of light. In photopharmacology, molecular photoswitches are introduced into the structure of biologically active small molecules to allow for the optical control of their potency. Going beyond trial and error, photopharmacology has progressively applied rational drug design methodologies to devise light-controlled bioactive ligands. In this review, we categorize photopharmacological efforts from the standpoint of medicinal chemistry strategies, focusing on diffusible photochromic ligands modified with photoswitches that operate through E-Z bond isomerization. In the vast majority of cases, photoswitchable ligands are designed as analogs of existing compounds, through a variety of approaches. By analyzing in detail a comprehensive list of instructive examples, we describe the state of the art and discuss future opportunities for rational design in photopharmacology.</p

    Targeting HDAC Complexes in Asthma and COPD

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    Around three million patients die due to airway inflammatory diseases each year. The most notable of these diseases are asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Therefore, new therapies are urgently needed. Promising targets are histone deacetylases (HDACs), since they regulate posttranslational protein acetylation. Over a thousand proteins are reversibly acetylated, and acetylation critically influences aberrant intracellular signaling pathways in asthma and COPD. The diverse set of selective and non-selective HDAC inhibitors used in pre-clinical models of airway inflammation show promising results, but several challenges still need to be overcome. One such challenge is the design of HDAC inhibitors with unique selectivity profiles, such as selectivity towards specific HDAC complexes. Novel strategies to disrupt HDAC complexes should be developed to validate HDACs further as targets for new anti-inflammatory pulmonary treatments

    A novel histone acetyltransferase inhibitor A485 improves sensitivity of non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells to TRAIL

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    Transcriptional coactivators p300 and CBP catalyze the acetylation of lysine residues in histone proteins. Upregulation of p300 and CBP has been associated with lung, colorectal and hepatocellular cancer, indicating an important role of p300 and CBP in tumorigenesis. Recently, the novel p300 and CBP-selective inhibitor A485 became available, which was shown to inhibit proliferation of 124 different cancer cell lines. Here, we found that downregulation of EP300 or CREBBP enhances apoptosis upon TRAIL stimulation in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. A485 upregulates pro- and anti-apoptotic genes at the mRNA level, implying an apoptosis-modulating effect in NSCLC cells. However, A485 alone does not induce apoptosis. Interestingly, we observed that the number of apoptotic cells increases upon combined treatment with A485 and TRAIL. Therefore, A485, as a TRAIL-sensitizer, was used in combination with TRAIL in wild type of NSCLC cell lines (HCC827 and H1650) and cells with acquired erlotinib resistance (HCC827-ER and H1650-ER). Our results show that the combination of A485 and TRAIL synergistically increases cell death and inhibits long-term cell proliferation. Furthermore, this combination inhibits the growth of 3D spheroids of EGFR-TKI-resistant cells. Taken together, we demonstrate a successful combination of A485 and TRAIL in EGFR-TKI-sensitive and resistant NSCLC cells

    Inflammation, Cancer and Oxidative Lipoxygenase Activity are Intimately Linked

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    Cancer and inflammation are intimately linked due to specific oxidative processes in the tumor microenvironment. Lipoxygenases are a versatile class of oxidative enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism. An increasing number of arachidonic acid metabolites is being discovered and apart from their classically recognized pro-inflammatory effects, anti-inflammatory effects are also being described in recent years. Interestingly, these lipid mediators are involved in activation of pro-inflammatory signal transduction pathways such as the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway, which illustrates the intimate link between lipid signaling and transcription factor activation. The identification of the role of arachidonic acid metabolites in several inflammatory diseases led to a significant drug discovery effort around arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes. However, to date success in this area has been limited. This might be attributed to the lack of selectivity of the developed inhibitors and to a lack of detailed understanding of the functional roles of arachidonic acid metabolites in inflammatory responses and cancer. This calls for a more detailed investigation of the activity of arachidonic acid metabolizing enzymes and development of more selective inhibitors
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