52 research outputs found

    Quadriceps Muscle Fatigue Reduces Extension and Flexion Power During Maximal Cycling

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    Purpose: To investigate how quadriceps muscle fatigue affects power production over the extension and flexion phases and muscle activation during maximal cycling. Methods: Ten participants performed 10-s maximal cycling efforts without fatigue and after 120 bilateral maximal concentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles. Extension power, flexion power and electromyographic (EMG) activity were compared between maximal cycling trials. We also investigated the associations between changes in quadriceps force during isometric maximal voluntary contractions (IMVC) and power output (flexion and extension) during maximal cycling, in addition to interindividual variability in muscle activation and pedal force profiles. Results: Quadriceps IMVC (−52 ± 21%, P = 0.002), voluntary activation (−24 ± 14%, P \u3c 0.001) and resting twitch amplitude (−45 ± 19%, P = 0.002) were reduced following the fatiguing task, whereas vastus lateralis (P = 0.58) and vastus medialis (P = 0.15) M-wave amplitudes were unchanged. The reductions in extension power (−15 ± 8%, P \u3c 0.001) and flexion power (−24 ± 18%, P \u3c 0.001) recorded during maximal cycling with fatigue of the quadriceps were dissociated from the decreases in quadriceps IMVC. Peak EMG decreased across all muscles while inter-individual variability in pedal force and EMG profiles increased during maximal cycling with quadriceps fatigue. Conclusion: Quadriceps fatigue induced by voluntary contractions led to reduced activation of all lower limb muscles, increased interindividual variability and decreased power production during maximal cycling. Interestingly, power production was further reduced over the flexion phase (24%) than the extension phase (15%), likely due to larger levels of peripheral fatigue developed in RF muscle and/or a higher contribution of the quadriceps muscle to flexion power production compared to extension power during maximal cycling

    Quadriceps muscle fatigue reduces extension and flexion power during maximal cycling

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    Purpose: To investigate how quadriceps muscle fatigue affects power production over the extension and flexion phases and muscle activation during maximal cycling. Methods: Ten participants performed 10-s maximal cycling efforts without fatigue and after 120 bilateral maximal concentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles. Extension power, flexion power and electromyographic (EMG) activity were compared between maximal cycling trials. We also investigated the associations between changes in quadriceps force during isometric maximal voluntary contractions (IMVC) and power output (flexion and extension) during maximal cycling, in addition to inter-individual variability in muscle activation and pedal force profiles. Results: Quadriceps IMVC (−52 ± 21%, P = 0.002), voluntary activation (−24 ± 14%, P < 0.001) and resting twitch amplitude (−45 ± 19%, P = 0.002) were reduced following the fatiguing task, whereas vastus lateralis (P = 0.58) and vastus medialis (P = 0.15) M-wave amplitudes were unchanged. The reductions in extension power (−15 ± 8%, P < 0.001) and flexion power (−24 ± 18%, P < 0.001) recorded during maximal cycling with fatigue of the quadriceps were dissociated from the decreases in quadriceps IMVC. Peak EMG decreased across all muscles while inter-individual variability in pedal force and EMG profiles increased during maximal cycling with quadriceps fatigue. Conclusion: Quadriceps fatigue induced by voluntary contractions led to reduced activation of all lower limb muscles, increased inter-individual variability and decreased power production during maximal cycling. Interestingly, power production was further reduced over the flexion phase (24%) than the extension phase (15%), likely due to larger levels of peripheral fatigue developed in RF muscle and/or a higher contribution of the quadriceps muscle to flexion power production compared to extension power during maximal cycling

    Effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on the contractile properties of human type I and type II skeletal muscle fibers

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    In vitro studies have shown that alterations in redox state can cause a range of opposing effects on the properties of the contractile apparatus in skeletal muscle fibers. To test whether and bow redox changes occurring in vivo affect the contractile properties, vastus lateralis muscle fibers from seven healthy young adults were examined at rest (PRE) and following (POST) high-intensity intermittent cycling exercise. Individual mechanically skinned muscle fibers were exposed to heavily buffered solutions at progressively higher free [Ca2+] to determine their force-Ca2+ relationship. Following acute exercise, Ca2+ sensitivity was significantly decreased in type I fibers (by 0.06 pCa unit) but not in type II fibers (0.01 pCa unit). Specific force decreased after the exercise in type II fibers (-18%) but was unchanged in type I fibers. Treatment with the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) caused a small decrease in Ca2+-sensitivity in type II fibers at PRE (by similar to 0.014 pCa units) and a significantly larger decrease at POST (similar to 0.035 pCa units), indicating that the exercise had increased S-glutathionylation of fast troponin I. Drr treatment also increased specific force (by similar to 4%), but only at POST. In contrast, DTT treatment had no effect on either parameter in type I fibers at either PRE or POST. In type I fibers, the decreased Ca2+ sensitivity was not due to reversible oxidative changes and may have contributed to a decrease in power production during vigorous exercises. In type II fibers, exercise-induced redox changes help counter the decline in Ca2+-sensitivity while causing a small decline in maximum force.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study identified important cellular changes occurring in human skeletal muscle fibers following high-intensity intermittent exercise: 1) a decrease in contractile apparatus Ca2+ sensitivity in type I but not type II fibers, 2) a decrease in specific force only in type II muscle fibers, and 3) a redox-dependent increase in Ca2+ sensitivity occurring only in type II fibers, which would help maintain muscle performance by countering the normal metabolite-induced decline in Ca2+ sensitivity

    Salbutamol effects on systemic potassium dynamics during and following intense continuous and intermittent exercise

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    Purpose: Salbutamol inhalation is permissible by WADA in athletic competition for asthma management and affects potassium regulation, which is vital for muscle function. Salbutamol effects on arterial potassium concentration ([K+]a) during and after high-intensity continuous exercise (HIcont) and intermittent exercise comprising repeated, brief sprints (HIint), and on performance during HIint are unknown and were investigated. Methods: Seven recreationally active men participated in a double-blind, randomised, cross-over design, inhaling 1000 µg salbutamol or placebo. Participants cycled continuously for 5 min at 40 % V ˙ O2peak and 60 % V ˙ O2peak, then HIcont (90 s at 130 % V ˙ O2peak), 20 min recovery, and then HIint (3 sets, 5 × 4 s sprints), with 30 min recovery. Results: Plasma [K+]a increased throughout exercise and subsequently declined below baseline (P < 0.001). Plasma [K+]a was greater during HIcont than HIint (P < 0.001, HIcont 5.94 ± 0.65 vs HIint set 1, 4.71 ± 0.40 mM); the change in [K+]a from baseline (Δ[K+]a) was 2.6-fold greater during HIcont than HIint (P < 0.001). The Δ[K+] throughout the trial was less with salbutamol than placebo (P < 0.001, treatment main effect, 0.03 ± 0.67 vs 0.22 ± 0.69 mM, respectively); and remained less after correction for fluid shifts (P < 0.001). The Δ[K+] during HIcont was less after salbutamol (P < 0.05), but not during HIint. Blood lactate, plasma pH, and the work output during HIint did not differ between trials. Conclusions: Inhaled salbutamol modulated the [K+]a rise across the trial, comprising intense continuous and intermittent exercise and recovery, lowering Δ[K+] during HIcont. The limited [K+]a changes during HIint suggest that salbutamol is unlikely to influence systemic [K+] during periods of intense effort in intermittent sports

    Peak torque and rate of torque development influence on repeated maximal exercise performance: Contractile and neural contributions

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    Rapid force production is critical to improve performance and prevent injuries. However, changes in rate of force/torque development caused by the repetition of maximal contractions have received little attention. The aim of this study was to determine the relative influence of rate of torque development (RTD) and peak torque (Tpeak) on the overall performance (i.e. mean torque, Tmean) decrease during repeated maximal contractions and to investigate the contribution of contractile and neural mechanisms to the alteration of the various mechanical variables. Eleven well-trained men performed 20 sets of 6-s isokinetic maximal knee extensions at 240°·s-1, beginning every 30 seconds. RTD, Tpeak and Tmean as well as the Rate of EMG Rise (RER), peak EMG (EMGpeak) and mean EMG (EMGmean) of the vastus lateralis were monitored for each contraction. A wavelet transform was also performed on raw EMG signal for instant mean frequency (ifmean) calculation. A neuromuscular testing procedure was carried out before and immediately after the fatiguing protocol including evoked RTD (eRTD) and maximal evoked torque (eTpeak) induced by high frequency doublet (100 Hz). Tmean decrease was correlated to RTD and Tpeak decrease (R²=0.62; p<0.001; respectively β=0.62 and β=0.19). RER, eRTD and initial ifmean (0-225 ms) decreased after 20 sets (respectively -21.1±14.1, -25±13%, and ~20%). RTD decrease was correlated to RER decrease (R²=0.36; p<0.05). The eTpeak decreased significantly after 20 sets (24±5%; p<0.05) contrary to EMGpeak (-3.2±19.5 %; p=0.71). Our results show that reductions of RTD explained part of the alterations of the overall performance during repeated moderate velocity maximal exercise. The reductions of RTD were associated to an impairment of the ability of the central nervous system to maximally activate the muscle in the first milliseconds of the contraction

    Changes in muscle coordination and power output during sprint cycling

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    This study investigated the changes in muscle coordination associated to power output decrease during a 30-s isokinetic (120rpm) cycling sprint. Modifications in EMG amplitude and onset/offset were investigated from eight muscles [gluteus maximus (EMGGMAX), vastus lateralis and medialis obliquus (EMGVAS), medial and lateral gastrocnemius (EMGGAS), rectus femoris (EMGRF), biceps femoris and semitendinosus (EMGHAM)]. Changes in co-activation of four muscle pairs (CAIGMAX/GAS, CAIVAS/GAS, CAIVAS/HAM and CAIGMAX/RF) were also calculated. Substantial power reduction (60±6%) was accompanied by a decrease in EMG amplitude for all muscles other than HAM, with the greatest deficit identified for EMGRF (31±16%) and EMGGAS (20±14%). GASonset, HAMonset and GMAXonset shifted later in the pedalling cycle and the EMG offsets of all muscles (except GASoffset) shifted earlier as the sprint progressed (PVAS/GAS and CAIGMAX/GAS were reduced by 48±10% and 43±12%, respectively. Our results show that substantial power reduction during fatiguing sprint cycling is accompanied by marked reductions in the EMG activity of bi-articular GAS and RF and co-activation level between GAS and main power producer muscles (GMAX and VAS). The observed changes in RF and GAS EMG activity are likely to result in a redistribution of the joint powers and alterations in the orientation of the pedal forces.</p
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