675 research outputs found

    Convergence of Precision Oncology and Liquid Biopsy in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    No full text
    : This review article illuminates the role of liquid biopsy in the continuum of care for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We discuss its current application in advanced-stage NSCLC at the time of diagnosis and at progression. We highlight research showing that concurrent testing of blood and tissue yields faster, more informative, and cheaper answers than the standard stepwise approach. We also describe future applications for liquid biopsy including treatment response monitoring and testing for minimal residual disease. Lastly, we discuss the emerging role of liquid biopsy for screening and early detection

    Donanemab in early symptomatic Alzheimer disease : the TRAILBLAZER-ALZ 2 randomized clinical trial

    No full text

    Comparison of SP142 and 22C3 Immunohistochemistry PD-L1 Assays for Clinical Efficacy of Atezolizumab in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results From the Randomized OAK Trial

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: This phase III OAK trial (NCT02008227) subgroup analysis (data cutoff, January 9, 2019) evaluated the predictive value of 2 PD-L1 IHC tests (VENTANA SP142 and Dako 22C3) for benefit from atezolizumab versus docetaxel by programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) status in patients with previously treated metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. METHODS: PD-L1 expression was assessed prospectively with SP142 on tumor cells (TC) and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (IC) and retrospectively with 22C3 using a tumor proportion score (TPS) based on TC membrane staining. Efficacy was assessed in the 22C3 biomarker-evaluable population (22C3-BEP) (n = 577; 47.1% of SP142-intention-to-treat population) and non-22C3-BEP (n = 648) in PD-L1 subgroups (high, low, and negative) and according to selection by 1 or both assays. RESULTS: In the 22C3-BEP, overall survival benefits with atezolizumab versus docetaxel were observed across PD-L1 subgroups; benefits were greatest in SP142-defined PD-L1-high (TC3 or IC3: hazard ratio [HR], 0.39 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.25-0.63]) and 22C3-defined PD-L1-high (TPS ≥ 50%: HR, 0.56 [95% CI, 0.38-0.82]) and low (TPS, 1% to \u3c 50%: HR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.37-0.82]) groups. Progression-free survival improved with increasing PD-L1 expression for both assays. SP142 and 22C3 assays identified overlapping and unique patient populations in PD-L1-high, positive, and negative subgroups. Overall survival and progression-free survival benefits favored atezolizumab over docetaxel in double PD-L1-positive and negative groups; patients with both SP142- and 22C3-positive tumors derived the greatest benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Despite different scoring algorithms and differing sensitivity levels, the SP142 and 22C3 assays similarly predicted atezolizumab benefit at validated PD-L1 thresholds in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    Phase 1 Study of Ceritinib Combined With Trametinib in Patients With Advanced ALK- or ROS1-Positive NSCLC

    No full text
    IntroductionIn patients with NSCLC harboring oncogenic ALK or ROS1 rearrangements, tyrosine kinase inhibitors have yielded high response rates and improvements in progression-free survival compared with cytotoxic chemotherapy; however, acquired resistance eventually develops. In preclinical models, ALK and MEK coinhibition was able to overcome ALK inhibitor resistance.MethodsA phase 1 study of the ALK/ROS1 inhibitor ceritinib and the MEK inhibitor trametinib in patients with refractory NSCLC harboring ALK or ROS1 fusions was initiated. A three plus three dose-escalation scheme was used. Two dose levels were investigated. The primary end point was to determine the safety and tolerability of the combination.ResultsNine patients (n = 8 ALK+, n = 1 ROS1+) were enrolled in the study and completed at least one cycle of therapy. The most common adverse events (all grades) were diarrhea (n = 9; 100%), rash (n = 8; 89%), abdominal pain (n = 5; 56%), and elevated aspartate transaminase/alanine transaminase level (n = 4; 44%). The overall response rate was 22%, whereas disease control rate was 56%. Median duration of response was 7.85 months. The median progression-free survival was 3.0 months (95% confidence interval: 1.5-7.0 mo). The median overall survival was 8.9 months (95% confidence interval: 2.0-not reached).ConclusionsData from this trial indicate that the combination of ceritinib and trametinib had no unexpected toxicities and that a tolerable dose could be identified. A subset of patients seemed to obtain clinical benefit from this treatment after progression on prior ALK/ROS1 inhibitor treatment.ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03087448

    The International Natural Product Sciences Taskforce (INPST) and the power of Twitter networking exemplified through #INPST hashtag analysis

    Get PDF
    Background: The development of digital technologies and the evolution of open innovation approaches have enabled the creation of diverse virtual organizations and enterprises coordinating their activities primarily online. The open innovation platform titled "International Natural Product Sciences Taskforce" (INPST) was established in 2018, to bring together in collaborative environment individuals and organizations interested in natural product scientific research, and to empower their interactions by using digital communication tools. Methods: In this work, we present a general overview of INPST activities and showcase the specific use of Twitter as a powerful networking tool that was used to host a one-week "2021 INPST Twitter Networking Event" (spanning from 31st May 2021 to 6th June 2021) based on the application of the Twitter hashtag #INPST. Results and Conclusion: The use of this hashtag during the networking event period was analyzed with Symplur Signals (https://www.symplur.com/), revealing a total of 6,036 tweets, shared by 686 users, which generated a total of 65,004,773 impressions (views of the respective tweets). This networking event's achieved high visibility and participation rate showcases a convincing example of how this social media platform can be used as a highly effective tool to host virtual Twitter-based international biomedical research events

    A Genomically and Clinically Annotated Patient-Derived Xenograft (PDX) Resource for Preclinical Research in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Get PDF
    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models are an effective preclinical in vivo platform for testing the efficacy of novel drugs and drug combinations for cancer therapeutics. Here we describe a repository of 79 genomically and clinically annotated lung cancer PDXs available from The Jackson Laboratory that have been extensively characterized for histopathologic features, mutational profiles, gene expression, and copy-number aberrations. Most of the PDXs are models of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), including 37 lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and 33 lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) models. Other lung cancer models in the repository include four small cell carcinomas, two large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, two adenosquamous carcinomas, and one pleomorphic carcinoma. Models with both de novo and acquired resistance to targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors are available in the collection. The genomic profiles of the LUAD and LUSC PDX models are consistent with those observed in patient tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas and previously characterized gene expression-based molecular subtypes. Clinically relevant mutations identified in the original patient tumors were confirmed in engrafted PDX tumors. Treatment studies performed in a subset of the models recapitulated the responses expected on the basis of the observed genomic profiles. These models therefore serve as a valuable preclinical platform for translational cancer research.SignificancePatient-derived xenografts of lung cancer retain key features observed in the originating patient tumors and show expected responses to treatment with standard-of-care agents, providing experimentally tractable and reproducible models for preclinical investigations

    A phase I dose escalation, dose expansion and pharmacokinetic trial of gemcitabine and alisertib in advanced solid tumors and pancreatic cancer.

    No full text
    PurposeAurora Kinase A (AKA) inhibition with gemcitabine represents a potentially synergistic cancer treatment strategy via mitotic catastrophe. The feasibility, safety, and preliminary efficacy of alisertib (MLN8237), an oral AKA inhibitor, with gemcitabine was evaluated in this open-label phase I trial with dose escalation and expansion.MethodsKey inclusion criteria included advanced solid tumor with any number of prior chemotherapy regimens in the dose escalation phase, and advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma with up to two prior chemotherapy regimens. Four dose levels (DLs 1-4) of alisertib (20, 30, 40, or 50 mg) were evaluated in 3 + 3 design with gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 in 28-day cycles.ResultsIn total, 21 subjects were treated in dose escalation and 5 subjects were treated in dose expansion at DL4. Dose-limiting toxicities were observed in 1 of 6 subjects each in DL3 and DL4. All subjects experienced treatment-related adverse events. Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events were observed in 73% of subjects, with neutropenia observed in 54%. Out of 22 subjects evaluable for response, 2 subjects (9%) had partial response and 14 subjects (64%) had stable disease. Median PFS was 4.1 months (95% CI 2.1-4.5). No significant changes in pharmacokinetic parameters for gemcitabine or its metabolite dFdU were observed with alisertib co-administration.ConclusionsThis trial established the recommended phase 2 dose of alisertib 50 mg to be combined with gemcitabine. Gemcitabine and alisertib are a feasible strategy with potential for disease control in multiple heavily pre-treated tumors, though gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicity was apparent
    • …
    corecore