2,939 research outputs found

    What can we learn from drug marketing efficiency?

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    The time it takes new drugs to penetrate the market is shrinking. David Kao suggests how drug companies’ techniques could be used to improve safety surveillance system

    Limitations of variable number of tandem repeat typing identified through whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis on a national and herd level

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    Background: Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), the causative bacterium of Johne’s disease in dairy cattle, is widespread in the Canadian dairy industry and has significant economic and animal welfare implications. An understanding of the population dynamics of MAP can be used to identify introduction events, improve control efforts and target transmission pathways, although this requires an adequate understanding of MAP diversity and distribution between herds and across the country. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) offers a detailed assessment of the SNP-level diversity and genetic relationship of isolates, whereas several molecular typing techniques used to investigate the molecular epidemiology of MAP, such as variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing, target relatively unstable repetitive elements in the genome that may be too unpredictable to draw accurate conclusions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of bovine MAP isolates in Canadian dairy herds using WGS and then determine if VNTR typing can distinguish truly related and unrelated isolates.<p></p> Results: Phylogenetic analysis based on 3,039 SNPs identified through WGS of 124 MAP isolates identified eight genetically distinct subtypes in dairy herds from seven Canadian provinces, with the dominant type including over 80% of MAP isolates. VNTR typing of 527 MAP isolates identified 12 types, including “bison type” isolates, from seven different herds. At a national level, MAP isolates differed from each other by 1–2 to 239–240 SNPs, regardless of whether they belonged to the same or different VNTR types. A herd-level analysis of MAP isolates demonstrated that VNTR typing may both over-estimate and under-estimate the relatedness of MAP isolates found within a single herd.<p></p> Conclusions: The presence of multiple MAP subtypes in Canada suggests multiple introductions into the country including what has now become one dominant type, an important finding for Johne’s disease control. VNTR typing often failed to identify closely and distantly related isolates, limiting the applicability of using this typing scheme to study the molecular epidemiology of MAP at a national and herd-level.<p></p&gt

    Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Patients Receiving Cardiotoxic Cancer Therapies Are Clinicians Responding Optimally?

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    ObjectivesThe purpose of this study was to examine treatment practices for cancer therapy-associated decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) detected on echocardiography and whether management was consistent with American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines.BackgroundPatients treated with anthracyclines or trastuzumab are at risk of cardiotoxicity. Decreased LVEF represents a Class I indication for drug intervention according to American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines.MethodsPatients receiving anthracycline or trastuzumab at Stanford University from October 2005 to October 2007 and who had undergone echocardiography before and after receiving an anthracycline or trastuzumab were identified. Chart review examined chemotherapy regimens, cardiac risk factors, imaging results, concomitant medications, and cardiology consultations.ResultsEighty-eight patients received therapy with an anthracycline or trastuzumab and had a pre-treatment and follow-up echocardiogram. Ninety-two percent were treated with anthracyclines, 17% with trastuzumab after an anthracycline, and 8% with trastuzumab without previous treatment with anthracycline. Mean baseline LVEF was 60%, with 14% having a baseline <55%. Forty percent had decreased LVEF (<55%) after anthracycline and/or trastuzumab treatment. Of these patients, 40% received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker therapy, 51% beta-blocker therapy, and 54% cardiology consultation. Of patients with asymptomatic decreased LVEF, 31% received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker therapy, 35% beta-blocker therapy, and 42% cardiology consultation. Of those with symptomatic decreased LVEF, 67% received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker therapy, 100% beta-blocker therapy, and 89% cardiology consultation.ConclusionsMany cancer survivors are not receiving treatment consistent with heart failure guidelines. There is substantial opportunity for collaboration between oncologists and cardiologists to improve the care of oncology patients receiving cardiotoxic therapy

    IAPP aggregation and cellular toxicity are inhibited by 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose

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    The polyphenol, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (PGG) has been found to exhibit a host of positive pharmacologic activities, including anti-cancer and anti-diabetic. Little is known about the mode of action of PGG in yielding these positive activities. We show here that PGG is a potent inhibitor of IAPP (islet amyloid polypeptide, amylin) aggregation. Preventing the initial aggregation event of IAPP is one strategy for slowing, and possibly preventing, the toxic effects of IAPP oligomeric intermediates. Equal molar ratios of PGG to IAPP substantially reduced the ability of IAPP to bind thioflavin T. Atomic force microscopy revealed that PGG prevented amyloid-based fiber formation under rigorous conditions conducive to forming IAPP aggregates. PGG was also found to protect PC12 rat cells from toxic IAPP. PGG was compared to the known amyloid inhibitors (and structural relatives); tannic acid and gallic acid. In every test, PGG was far superior to tannic and gallic acids at inhibiting amyloid aggregation. These results indicate that PGG is a potent inhibitor of IAPP amyloid aggregation and a potential lead molecule for development of an amyloid inhibiting therapeutic

    Supplementary Prognostic Variables for Pleural Mesothelioma A Report from the IASLC Staging Committee

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    Introduction: The staging system for malignant pleural mesothelioma is controversial. To revise this system, the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Staging Committee developed an international database. This report analyzes prognostic variables in a surgical population, which are supplementary to previously published CORE variables (stage, histology, sex, age, and type of procedure). Methods: Supplementary prognostic variables were studied in three scenarios: (1) all data available, that is, patient pathologically staged and other CORE variables available (2) only clinical staging available along with CORE variables, and (3) only age, sex, histology, and laboratory parameters are known. Survival was analyzed by Kaplan– Meier, prognostic factors by log rank and stepwise Cox regression modeling after elimination of nonsignificant variables. p value less than 0.05 was significant. Results: A total of 2141 patients with best tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stages (pathologic with/without clinical staging) had nonmissing age, sex, histology, and type of surgical procedure. Three prognostic models were defined. Scenario A (all parameters): best pathologic stage, histology, sex, age, type of surgery, adjuvant treatment, white blood cell count (WBC) (≥15.5 or not), and platelets (≥400 k or not) (n = 550). Scenario B (no surgical staging): clinical stage, histology, sex, age, type of surgery, adjuvant treatment, WBC, hemoglobin (<14.6 or not), and platelets (n = 627). Scenario C (limited data): histology, sex, age, WBC, hemoglobin, and platelets (n = 906). Conclusion: Refinement of these models could define not only the appropriate patient preoperatively for best outcomes after cytoreductive surgery but also stratify surgically treated patients after clinical and pathologic staging who do or do not receive adjuvant therapy

    Incorporating remanufacturing into the end-of-life vehicles directive : current presence and the waste problem

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    Within the End-of-Life Vehicles (ELV) directive, various terminology and practices are outlined to ultimately divert waste from landfill, including reuse, recycle, recovery, treatment, prevention and economic operators. Remanufacturing terminology is not explicitly stated however. Further, leading global automotive remanufacturers, have recently agreed upon a collective definition of what constitutes automotive remanufacturing. With a view to establishing remanufacturing as a stand-alone process within the ELV directive going forward, this research analyses where remanufacturing is currently situated within the ELV directive, highlighting obstacles, with a strong focus on ‘waste terminology’, of directly incorporating remanufacturing into the ELV directive and presents guidance on incorporating remanufacturing moving forward. By ignoring the concept of waste, this study found that remanufacturing processes are generally classed under reuse, recycling and recovery terminology with remanufacturing also having a tenuous relationship with treatment facilities and economic operators. In addition to highlighting the issues caused by remanufacturing spanning across recycle and reuse terminology, by incorporating waste, this research also found that automotive associations definition of remanufacturing is not able to be incorporated into the ELV directive directly. A workable solution, taking both the objectives of the ELV directive and the view of the automotive associations into consideration, was however found, and is presented in this wor

    Real-Time Electronic Health Record Mortality Prediction During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Prospective Cohort Study

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    Background: The SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected millions of people, overwhelming critical care resources in some regions. Many plans for rationing critical care resources during crises are based on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score. The COVID-19 pandemic created an emergent need to develop and validate a novel electronic health record (EHR)-computable tool to predict mortality. Research Questions: To rapidly develop, validate, and implement a novel real-time mortality score for the COVID-19 pandemic that improves upon SOFA. Study Design and Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of a regional health system with 12 hospitals in Colorado between March 2020 and July 2020. All patients >14 years old hospitalized during the study period without a do not resuscitate order were included. Patients were stratified by the diagnosis of COVID-19. From this cohort, we developed and validated a model using stacked generalization to predict mortality using data widely available in the EHR by combining five previously validated scores and additional novel variables reported to be associated with COVID-19-specific mortality. We compared the area under the receiver operator curve (AUROC) for the new model to the SOFA score and the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results: We prospectively analyzed 27,296 encounters, of which 1,358 (5.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2, 4,494 (16.5%) included intensive care unit (ICU)-level care, 1,480 (5.4%) included invasive mechanical ventilation, and 717 (2.6%) ended in death. The Charlson Comorbidity Index and SOFA scores predicted overall mortality with an AUROC of 0.72 and 0.90, respectively. Our novel score predicted overall mortality with AUROC 0.94. In the subset of patients with COVID-19, we predicted mortality with AUROC 0.90, whereas SOFA had AUROC of 0.85. Interpretation: We developed and validated an accurate, in-hospital mortality prediction score in a live EHR for automatic and continuous calculation using a novel model, that improved upon SOFA. Study Question: Can we improve upon the SOFA score for real-time mortality prediction during the COVID-19 pandemic by leveraging electronic health record (EHR) data? Results: We rapidly developed and implemented a novel yet SOFA-anchored mortality model across 12 hospitals and conducted a prospective cohort study of 27,296 adult hospitalizations, 1,358 (5.0%) of which were positive for SARS-CoV-2. The Charlson Comorbidity Index and SOFA scores predicted all-cause mortality with AUROCs of 0.72 and 0.90, respectively. Our novel score predicted mortality with AUROC 0.94. Interpretation: A novel EHR-based mortality score can be rapidly implemented to better predict patient outcomes during an evolving pandemic

    Effect of rhPDGF-BB on bone turnover during periodontal repair

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    Purpose : Growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) exert potent effects on wound healing including the regeneration of periodontia. Pyridinoline cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) is a well-known biomarker of bone turnover, and as such is a potential indicator of osseous metabolic activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the release of the ICTP into the periodontal wound fluid (WF) following periodontal reconstructive surgery using local delivery of highly purified recombinant human PDGF (rhPDGF)-BB. Methods : Forty-seven human subjects at five treatment centres possessing chronic severe periodontal disease were monitored longitudinally for 24 weeks following PDGF regenerative surgical treatment. Severe periodontal osseous defects were divided into one of three groups and treated at the time of surgery with either: Β -tricalcium phosphate (TCP) osteoconductive scaffold alone (active control), Β -TCP+0.3 mg/ml of rhPDGF-BB, or Β -TCP+1.0 mg/ml of rhPDGF-BB. WF was harvested and analysed for local ICTP levels by radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and an area under the curve analysis (AUC). Results : The 0.3 and 1.0 mg/ml PDGF-BB treatment groups demonstrated increases in the amount of ICTP released locally for up to 6 weeks. There were statistically significant differences at the week 6 time point between Β -TCP carrier alone group versus 0.3 mg/ml PDGF-BB group ( p <0.05) and between Β -TCP alone versus the 1.0 mg/ml PDGF-BB-treated lesions ( p <0.03). The AUC analysis revealed no statistical differences amongst groups. Conclusion : This study corroborates the release of ICTP as a measure of active bone turnover following local delivery of PDGF-BB to periodontal osseous defects. The amount of ICTP released from the WF revealed an early increase for all treatment groups. Data from this study suggests that when PDGF-BB is delivered to promote periodontal tissue engineering of tooth-supporting osseous defects, there is a direct effect on ICTP released from the wound.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/72239/1/j.1600-051X.2005.00870.x.pd

    Noninvasive detection of graft injury after heart transplant using donor-derived cell-free DNA: A prospective multicenter study

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    Standardized donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) testing has been introduced into clinical use to monitor kidney transplant recipients for rejection. This report describes the performance of this dd-cfDNA assay to detect allograft rejection in samples from heart transplant (HT) recipients undergoing surveillance monitoring across the United States. Venous blood was longitudinally sampled from 740 HT recipients from 26 centers and in a single-center cohort of 33 patients at high risk for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Plasma dd-cfDNA was quantified by using targeted amplification and sequencing of a single nucleotide polymorphism panel. The dd-cfDNA levels were correlated to paired events of biopsy-based diagnosis of rejection. The median dd-cfDNA was 0.07% in reference HT recipients (2164 samples) and 0.17% in samples classified as acute rejection (35 samples; P = .005). At a 0.2% threshold, dd-cfDNA had a 44% sensitivity to detect rejection and a 97% negative predictive value. In the cohort at risk for AMR (11 samples), dd-cfDNA levels were elevated 3-fold in AMR compared with patients without AMR (99 samples, P = .004). The standardized dd-cfDNA test identified acute rejection in samples from a broad population of HT recipients. The reported test performance characteristics will guide the next stage of clinical utility studies of the dd-cfDNA assay