38 research outputs found

    Spiritual Well-Being, Depression, and Stress Among Hemodialysis Patients in Jordan

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    Purpose: The spiritual dimension of a patient’s life is an important factor that may mediate detrimental impacts on mental health. The lack of research investigating spiritual well-being, religiosity, and mental health among Jordanian hemodialysis patients encouraged this research. This study explored levels of spiritual well-being and its associations with depression, anxiety, and stress. Design: A quantitative, cross-sectional correlational study. Method: A sample of 218 Jordanian Muslim hemodialysis patients completed a structured, self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear multivariate regression models. Findings: The hemodialysis patients had, on average, relatively low levels of spiritual well-being, moderate depression, severe anxiety, and mild to moderate stress. The results of the regression models indicated that aspects of spiritual well-being were negatively associated with depression, anxiety, and stress, but only existential well-being consistently retained significant associations after controlling for religious well-being, religiosity, and sociodemographic variables. Conclusions: Greater spiritual and existential well-being of Jordanian hemodialysis patients were significantly associated with less depression, anxiety, and stress. It appears that these patients use religious and spiritual beliefs and practices as coping mechanisms to overcome their depression, anxiety, and stress. The implications for holistic clinical practice are explored

    Association between psychosomatic health symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents: Age and gender as potential moderators

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    Little is known about the role of age and gender in the association between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents. This cross-sectional study examined age and gender as moderators between psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness using data from a school-based survey ( N = 770). Males reported higher psychosomatic symptoms and common mental illness, while younger adolescents reported higher common mental illness only. Psychosomatic symptoms were positively associated with common mental illness, but age and gender did not moderate this association. Interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence rate in psychosomatic symptoms are crucial in decreasing common mental illness in Ghanaian adolescents. </jats:p

    Housing Affordability, Tenure and Mental Health in Australia and the United Kingdom: A Comparative Panel Analysis

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    The paper contributes insights into the role of tenure in modifying the relationship between housing affordability and health, using a cross-national comparison of similar post-industrial nations ? Australia and the United Kingdom ? with different tenure structures. The paper utilises longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (HILDA) and British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) to examine change in the mental health of individuals associated with housing becoming unaffordable and considers modification by tenure. We present evidence that the role of tenure in the relationship between housing and health is context dependent and should not be unthinkingly generalised across nations. These findings suggest that the UK housing context offers a greater level of protection to tenants living in unaffordable housing when compared with Australia, and this finds expression in the mental health of the two populations. We conclude that Australian governments could improve the mental health of their economically vulnerable populations through more supportive housing policies

    Routine testing for blood-borne viruses in prisons: a systematic review

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    Background: People in prison have a higher burden of blood-borne virus (BBV) infection than the general population, and prisons present an opportunity to test for BBVs in high-risk, underserved groups. Changes to the BBV testing policies in English prisons have recently been piloted. This review will enable existing evidence to inform policy revisions. We describe components of routine HIV, hepatitis B and C virus testing policies in prisons and quantify testing acceptance, coverage, result notification and diagnosis. Methods: We searched five databases for studies of both opt-in (testing offered to all and the individual chooses to have the test or not) and opt-out (the individual is informed the test will be performed unless they actively refuse) prison BBV testing policies. Results: Forty-four studies published between 1989 and 2013 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 82% were conducted in the USA, 91% included HIV testing and most tested at the time of incarceration. HIV testing acceptance rates ranged from 22 to 98% and testing coverage from 3 to 90%. Mixed results were found for equity in uptake. Six studies reported reasons for declining a test including recent testing and fear. Conclusions: While the quality of evidence is mixed, this review suggests that reasonable rates of uptake can be achieved with opt-in and, even better, with opt-out HIV testing policies. Little evidence was found relating to hepatitis testing. Policies need to specify exclusion criteria and consider consent processes, type of test and timing of the testing offer to balance acceptability, competence and availability of individuals

    Is the relationship between common mental disorder and adiposity bidirectional? Prospective analyses of a UK general population-based study

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    The direction of the association between mental health and adiposity is poorly understood. Our objective was to empirically examine this link in a UK study. This is a prospective cohort study of 3 388 people (men) aged >= 18 years at study induction who participated in both the UK Health and Lifestyle Survey at baseline (HALS-1, 1984/1985) and the re-survey (HALS-2, 1991/1992). At both survey examinations, body mass index, waist circumference and self-reported common mental disorder (the 30-item General Health Questionnaire, GHQ) were measured. Logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (OR) and accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between (1) baseline common mental disorder (QHQ score > 4) and subsequent general and abdominal obesity and (2) baseline general and abdominal obesity and re-survey common mental disorders. After controlling for a range of covariates, participants with common mental disorder at baseline experienced greater odds of subsequently becoming overweight (women, OR: 1.30, 1.03 - 1.64; men, 1.05, 0.81 -1.38) and obese (women, 1.26, 0.82 - 1.94; men, OR: 2.10, 1.23 - 3.55) than those who were free of common mental disorder. Similarly, having baseline common mental health disorder was also related to a greater risk of developing moderate (1.57, 1.21 - 2.04) and severe (1.48, 1.09 - 2.01) abdominal obesity (women only). Baseline general or abdominal obesity was not associated with the risk of future common mental disorder. These findings of the present study suggest that the direction of association between common mental disorders and adiposity is from common mental disorder to increased future risk of adiposity as opposed to the converse

    Impact of Spiritual Well-Being, Spiritual Perspective, and Religiosity on the Self-Rated Health of Jordanian Arab Christians

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    The purpose of this study was to explore associations of spiritual well-being, spiritual perspective, and religiosity with self-rated health in a convenience sample of 340 adult Jordanian Arab Christians. Data were collected through church and community groups. Results indicated that spiritual well-being and religiosity were positively associated with self-rated health, but in the final regression model only spiritual well-being retained a significant association after controlling for the other spiritual and religious measures. In conclusion, spirituality and religiosity are important to Jordanian Arab Christians’ health and well-being, and the implications for nursing practice are explored

    Factor structure and psychometric properties of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) among Ghanaian adolescents

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    Purpose: There is little information about the reliability and validity of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in Ghana. This study sought to examine the reliability and factor structure of the GHQ-12 in Ghanaian adolescents. Method: sHigh school students (N = 770) completed the GHQ-12 and the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ). Internal consistency, convergent validity and exploratory factor analysis were used. Results: A two factor structure, each with six items, was extracted. The total GHQ-12 had acceptable internal consistency and a generally high correlation with the ASQ subscales. Conclusion: The GHQ-12 can be used in Ghanaian samples, but more research is needed to confirm its factor structure

    Association between socioeconomic factors and cancer risk : a population cohort study in Scotland (1991-2006)

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    Background: Lung and upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancer risk are associated with low socioeconomic circumstances and routinely measured using area socioeconomic indices. We investigated effect of country of birth, marital status, one area deprivation measure and individual socioeconomic variables (economic activity, education, occupational social class, car ownership, household tenure) on risk associated with lung, UADT and all cancer combined (excluding non melanoma skin cancer). Methods: We linked Scottish Longitudinal Study and Scottish Cancer Registry to follow 203,658 cohort members aged 15+ years from 1991-2006. Relative risks (RR) were calculated using Poisson regression models by sex offset for person-years of follow-up. Results: 21,832 first primary tumours (including 3,505 lung, 1,206 UADT) were diagnosed. Regardless of cancer, economically inactivity (versus activity) was associated with increased risk (male: RR 1.14, 95% CI 1.10-1.18; female: RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11). For lung cancer, area deprivation remained significant after full adjustment suggesting the area deprivation cannot be fully explained by individual variables. No or non degree qualification (versus degree) was associated with increased lung risk; likewise for UADT risk (females only). Occupational social class associations were most pronounced and elevated for UADT risk. No car access (versus ownership) was associated with increased risk (excluding all cancer risk, males). Renting (versus home ownership) was associated with increased lung cancer risk, UADT cancer risk (males only) and all cancer risk (females only). Regardless of cancer group, elevated risk was associated with no education and living in deprived areas. Conclusions: Different and independent socioeconomic variables are inversely associated with different cancer risks in both sexes; no one socioeconomic variable captures all aspects of socioeconomic circumstances or life course. Association of multiple socioeconomic variables is likely to reflect the complexity and multifaceted nature of deprivation as well as the various roles of these dimensions over the life course.Publisher PDFPeer reviewe

    Demonstrating cultural competence within health-visiting practice: working with refugee and asylum-seeking families

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    This qualitative study explored the experiences of health visitors working with refugee and asylumseeking families in central London, and assessed the dimensions of their cultural competency using Quickfall's model (Quickfall, 2004, 2010). In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 health visitors. Data were analysed using Framework, a thematicbased analytical method. The findings revealed that the health visitors demonstrated aspects of culturally competent care in relation to Quickfall's five-step model which was developed from the literature specifically for working with asylum applicants within a primary care setting. Shortcomings with regard to demonstrating cultural competence were related to working for an organisation whose work is governed by external factors such as national legislation and policy. In addition, the complexity of the needs of these vulnerable populations and limited resources sometimes compromised the cultural competence of the health visitors. However, they showed many positive xamples of how they provided equity, access and non-discriminatory services, health promotion and socially inclusive services

    Social support, stress, health, and academic success in Ghanaian adolescents: A path analysis

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    The aim of this study is to gain a better understanding of the role psychosocial factors play in promoting the health and academic success of adolescents. A total of 770 adolescent boys and girls in Senior High Schools were randomly selected to complete a self-report questionnaire. School reported latest terminal examination grades were used as the measure of academic success. Structural equation modelling indicated a relatively good fit to the posteriori model with four of the hypothesised paths fully supported and two partially supported. Perceived social support was negatively related to stress and predictive of health and wellbeing but not academic success. Stress was predictive of health but not academic success. Finally, health and wellbeing was able to predict academic success. These findings have policy implications regarding efforts aimed at promoting the health and wellbeing as well as the academic success of adolescents in Ghana. © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents
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