94 research outputs found

    The shootings in Oslo and Utøya island July 22, 2011: Lessons for the International EMS community

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    SJTREM has published an account by Sollid and colleagues of the pre-hospital medical response to the major incidents, which occurred in Oslo and Utøya island on July 22, 2011. Although very similar incidents have occurred in Europe and elsewhere, this terrible day saw the greatest loss of life recorded in this type of incident in recent times. Internationally EMS providers looked on with the certain knowledge that this type of incident is sadly one that we all have to prepare for. It is unrelated to national foreign policy, religious extremism or the existence of known terrorist activity. In short this type of incident is unpredictable and has the potential to happen in any community at any time

    The performance and assessment of hospital trauma teams

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    The purpose of the trauma team is to provide advanced simultaneous care from relevant specialists to the seriously injured trauma patient. When functioning well, the outcome of the trauma team performance should be greater than the sum of its parts. Trauma teams have been shown to reduce the time taken for resuscitation, as well as time to CT scan, to emergency department discharge and to the operating room. These benefits are demonstrated by improved survival rates, particularly for the most severely injured patients, both within and outside of dedicated trauma centres. In order to ensure the best possible performance of the team, the leadership skills of the trauma team leader are essential and their non-technical skills have been shown to be particularly important. Team performance can be enhanced through a process of audit and assessment of the workings of the team and the evidence currently available suggests that this is best facilitated through the process of video review of the trauma resuscitation. The use of human patient simulators to train and assess trauma teams is becoming more commonplace and this technique offers a safe environment for the future education of trauma team staff

    Revisiting the value of pre-hospital tracheal intubation: an all time systematic literature review extracting the Utstein airway core variables

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    Introduction: Although tracheal intubation (TI) in the pre-hospital setting is regularly carried out by emergency medical service (EMS) providers throughout the world, its value is widely debated. Heterogeneity in procedures, providers, patients, systems and stated outcomes, and inconsistency in data reporting make scientific reports difficult to interpret and compare, and the majority are of limited quality. To hunt down what is really known about the value of pre-hospital TI, we determined the rate of reported Utstein airway variables (28 core variables and 12 fixed-system variables) found in current scientific publications on pre-hospital TI. Methods: We performed an all time systematic search according to the PRISMA guidelines of Medline and EMBASE to identify original research pertaining to pre-hospital TI in adult patients. Results: From 1,076 identified records, 73 original papers were selected. Information was extracted according to an Utstein template for data reporting from in-the-field advanced airway management. Fifty-nine studies were from North American EMS systems. Of these, 46 (78%) described services in which non-physicians conducted TI. In 12 of the 13 non-North American EMS systems, physicians performed the pre-hospital TI. Overall, two were randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and 65 were observational studies. None of the studies presented the complete set of recommended Utstein airway variables. The median number of core variables reported was 10 (max 21, min 2, IQR 8-12), and the median number of fixed system variables was 5 (max 11, min 0, IQR 4-8). Among the most frequently reported variables were “patient category” and “service mission type”, reported in 86% and 71% of the studies, respectively. Among the least-reported variables were “co-morbidity” and “type of available ventilator”, both reported in 2% and 1% of the studies, respectively. Conclusions: Core data required for proper interpretation of results were frequently not recorded and reported in studies investigating TI in adults. This makes it difficult to compare scientific reports, assess their validity, and extrapolate to other EMS systems. Pre-hospital TI is a complex intervention, and terminology and study design must be improved to substantiate future evidence based clinical practice

    The extracellular domain of two-component system sensor kinase VanS from streptomyces coelicolor binds Vancomycin at a newly identified binding site

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    The glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin has been widely used to treat infections of Gram-positive bacteria including Clostridium difficile and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. However, since its introduction, high level vancomycin resistance has emerged. The genes responsible require the action of the two-component regulatory system VanSR to induce expression of resistance genes. The mechanism of detection of vancomycin by this two-component system has yet to be elucidated. Diverging evidence in the literature supports activation models in which the VanS protein binds either vancomycin, or Lipid II, to induce resistance. Here we investigated the interaction between vancomycin and VanS from Streptomyces coelicolor (VanSSC), a model Actinomycete. We demonstrate a direct interaction between vancomycin and purified VanSSC, and traced these interactions to the extracellular region of the protein, which we reveal adopts a predominantly α-helical conformation. The VanSSC-binding epitope within vancomycin was mapped to the N-terminus of the peptide chain, distinct from the binding site for Lipid II. In targeting a separate site on vancomycin, the effective VanS ligand concentration includes both free and lipid-bound molecules, facilitating VanS activation. This is the first molecular description of the VanS binding site within vancomycin, and could direct engineering of future therapeutics

    A consensus-based template for documenting and reporting in physician-staffed pre-hospital services

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    Background: Physician-staffed pre-hospital units are employed in many Western emergency medical services (EMS) systems. Although these services usually integrate well within their EMS, little is known about the quality of care delivered, the precision of dispatch, and whether the services deliver a higher quality of care to pre-hospital patients. There is no common data set collected to document the activity of physician pre-hospital activity which makes shared research efforts difficult. The aim of this study was to develop a core data set for routine documentation and reporting in physician-staffed pre-hospital services in Europe. Methods: Using predefined criteria, we recruited sixteen European experts in the field of pre-hospital care. These experts were guided through a four-step modified nominal group technique. The process was carried out using both e-mail-based communication and a plenary meeting in Stavanger, Norway. Results: The core data set was divided into 5 sections: “fixed system variables”, “event operational descriptors”, “ patient descriptors”, “process mapping”, and “outcome measures and quality indicators”. After the initial round, a total of 361 variables were proposed by the experts. Subsequent rounds reduced the number of core variables to 45. These constituted the final core data set. Emphasis was placed on the standardisation of reporting time variables, chief complaints and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Conclusions: Using a modified nominal group technique, we have established a core data set for documenting and reporting in physician-staffed pre-hospital services. We believe that this template could facilitate future studies within the field and facilitate standardised reporting and future shared research efforts in advanced prehospital care.publishedVersio

    Establishing quality indicators for prehospital advanced airway management: a modified nominal group technique consensus process

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    Background: Prehospital advanced airway management is a complex intervention composed of numerous steps, interactions, and variables that can be delivered to a high standard in the prehospital setting. Standard research methods have struggled to evaluate this complex intervention because of considerable heterogeneity in patients, providers, and techniques. In this study, we aimed to develop a set of quality indicators to evaluate prehospital advanced airway management. Methods: We used a modified nominal group technique consensus process comprising three email rounds and a consensus meeting among a group of 16 international experts. The final set of quality indicators was assessed for usability according to the National Quality Forum Measure Evaluation Criteria. Results: Seventy-seven possible quality indicators were identified through a narrative literature review with a further 49 proposed by panel experts. A final set of 17 final quality indicators composed of three structure-, nine process-, and five outcome-related indicators, was identified through the consensus process. The quality indicators cover all steps of prehospital advanced airway management from preoxygenation and use of rapid sequence induction to the ventilatory state of the patient at hospital delivery, prior intubation experience of provider, success rates and complications. Conclusions: We identified a set of quality indicators for prehospital advanced airway management that represent a practical tool to measure, report, analyse, and monitor quality and performance of this complex intervention.publishedVersio

    Standardised data reporting from pre-hospital advanced airway management - a nominal group technique update of the Utstein-style airway template

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    Background Pre-hospital advanced airway management with oxygenation and ventilation may be vital for managing critically ill or injured patients. To improve pre-hospital critical care and develop evidence-based guidelines, research on standardised high-quality data is important. We aimed to identify which airway data were most important to report today and to revise and update a previously reported Utstein-style airway management dataset. Methods We recruited sixteen international experts in pre-hospital airway management from Australia, United States of America, and Europe. We used a five-step modified nominal group technique to revise the dataset, and clinical study results from the original template were used to guide the process. Results The experts agreed on a key dataset of thirty-two operational variables with six additional system variables, organised in time, patient, airway management and system sections. Of the original variables, one remained unchanged, while nineteen were modified in name, category, definition or value. Sixteen new variables were added. The updated dataset covers risk factors for difficult intubation, checklist and standard operating procedure use, pre-oxygenation strategies, the use of drugs in airway management, airway currency training, developments in airway devices, airway management strategies, and patient safety issues not previously described. Conclusions Using a modified nominal group technique with international airway management experts, we have updated the Utstein-style dataset to report standardised data from pre-hospital advanced airway management. The dataset enables future airway management research to produce comparable high-quality data across emergency medical systems. We believe this approach will promote research and improve treatment strategies and outcomes for patients receiving pre-hospital advanced airway management.publishedVersio

    Existence of long-lasting experience-dependent plasticity in endocrine cell networks

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    Experience-dependent plasticity of cell and tissue function is critical for survival by allowing organisms to dynamically adjust physiological processes in response to changing or harsh environmental conditions. Despite the conferred evolutionary advantage, it remains unknown whether emergent experience-dependent properties are present in cell populations organized as networks within endocrine tissues involved in regulating body-wide homeostasis. Here we show, using lactation to repeatedly activate a specific endocrine cell network in situ in the mammalian pituitary, that templates of prior demand are permanently stored through stimulus-evoked alterations to the extent and strength of cell–cell connectivity. Strikingly, following repeat stimulation, evolved population behaviour leads to improved tissue output. As such, long-lasting experience-dependent plasticity is an important feature of endocrine cell networks and underlies functional adaptation of hormone release
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