354 research outputs found

    Shared genetic factors underlie migraine and depression

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    Free to read\ud \ud Migraine frequently co-occurs with depression. Using a large sample of Australian twin pairs, we aimed to characterize the extent to which shared genetic factors underlie these two disorders. Migraine was classified using three diagnostic measures, including self-reported migraine, the ID migraine screening tool, or migraine without aura (MO) and migraine with aura (MA) based on International Headache Society (IHS) diagnostic criteria. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and minor depressive disorder (MiDD) were classified using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria. Univariate and bivariate twin models, with and without sex-limitation, were constructed to estimate the univariate and bivariate variance components and genetic correlation for migraine and depression. The univariate heritability of broad migraine (self-reported, ID migraine, or IHS MO/MA) and broad depression (MiDD or MDD) was estimated at 56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 53-60%) and 42% (95% CI: 37-46%), respectively. A significant additive genetic correlation (r G = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.29-0.43) and bivariate heritability (h 2 = 5.5%, 95% CI: 3.6-7.8%) was observed between broad migraine and depression using the bivariate Cholesky model. Notably, both the bivariate h 2 (13.3%, 95% CI: 7.0-24.5%) and r G (0.51, 95% CI: 0.37-0.69) estimates significantly increased when analyzing the more narrow clinically accepted diagnoses of IHS MO/MA and MDD. Our results indicate that for both broad and narrow definitions, the observed comorbidity between migraine and depression can be explained almost entirely by shared underlying genetically determined disease mechanisms

    Genome-wide imputed differential expression enrichment analysis identifies trait-relevant tissues

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    The identification of pathogenically-relevant genes and tissues for complex traits can be a difficult task. We developed an approach named genome-wide imputed differential expression enrichment (GIDEE), to prioritise trait-relevant tissues by combining genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistic data with tissue-specific expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) data from 49 GTEx tissues. Our GIDEE approach analyses robustly imputed gene expression and tests for enrichment of differentially expressed genes in each tissue. Two tests (mean squared z-score and empirical Brown’s method) utilise the full distribution of differential expression p-values across all genes, while two binomial tests assess the proportion of genes with tissue-wide significant differential expression. GIDEE was applied to nine training datasets with known trait-relevant tissues and ranked 49 GTEx tissues using the individual and combined enrichment tests. The best-performing enrichment test produced an average rank of 1.55 out of 49 for the known trait-relevant tissue across the nine training datasets—ranking the correct tissue first five times, second three times, and third once. Subsequent application of the GIDEE approach to 20 test datasets—whose pathogenic tissues or cell types are uncertain or unknown—provided important prioritisation of tissues relevant to the trait’s regulatory architecture. GIDEE prioritisation may thus help identify both pathogenic tissues and suitable proxy tissue/cell models (e.g., using enriched tissues/cells that are more easily accessible). The application of our GIDEE approach to GWAS datasets will facilitate follow-up in silico and in vitro research to determine the functional consequence(s) of their risk loci

    Familial aggregation of migraine and depression: Insights from a large Australian twin sample

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    Free to read\ud \ud Objectives: This research examined the familial aggregation of migraine, depression, and their co-occurrence.\ud \ud Methods: Diagnoses of migraine and depression were determined in a sample of 5,319 Australian twins. Migraine was diagnosed by either self-report, the ID migraine™ Screener, or International Headache Society (IHS) criteria. Depression was defined by fulfilling either major depressive disorder (MDD) or minor depressive disorder (MiDD) based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) criteria. The relative risks (RR) for migraine and depression were estimated in co-twins of twin probands reporting migraine or depression to evaluate their familial aggregation and co-occurrence.\ud \ud Results: An increased RR of both migraine and depression in co-twins of probands with the same trait was observed, with significantly higher estimates within monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs compared to dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs. For cross-trait analysis, the RR for migraine in co-twins of probands reporting depression was 1.36 (95% CI: 1.24–1.48) in MZ pairs and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.95–1.14) in DZ pairs; and the RR for depression in co-twins of probands reporting migraine was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.14–1.38) in MZ pairs and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.94–1.11) in DZ pairs. The RR for strict IHS migraine in co-twins of probands reporting MDD was 2.23 (95% CI: 1.81–2.75) in MZ pairs and 1.55 (95% CI: 1.34–1.79) in DZ pairs; and the RR for MDD in co-twins of probands reporting IHS migraine was 1.35 (95% CI: 1.13–1.62) in MZ pairs and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.93–1.22) in DZ pairs.\ud \ud Conclusions: We observed significant evidence for a genetic contribution to familial aggregation of migraine and depression. Our findings suggest a bi-directional association between migraine and depression, with an increased risk for depression in relatives of probands reporting migraine, and vice versa. However, the observed risk for migraine in relatives of probands reporting depression was considerably higher than the reverse. These results add further support to previous studies suggesting that patients with comorbid migraine and depression are genetically more similar to patients with only depression than patients with only migraine

    Susceptibility locus on chromosome 1q23-25 for a schizophrenia subtype resembling deficit schizophrenia identified by latent class analysis

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    Context: Identifying susceptibility genes for schizophrenia may be complicated by phenotypic heterogeneity, with some evidence suggesting that phenotypic heterogeneity reflects genetic heterogeneity. Objective: To evaluate the heritability and conduct genetic linkage analyses of empirically derived, clinically homogeneous schizophrenia subtypes. Design: Latent class and linkage analysis. Setting: Taiwanese field research centers. Participants: The latent class analysis included 1236 Han Chinese individuals with DSM-IV schizophrenia. These individuals were members of a large affected-sibling-pair sample of schizophrenia (606 ascertained families), original linkage analyses of which detected a maximum logarithm of odds (LOD) of 1.8 (z = 2.88) on chromosome 10q22.3. Main Outcome Measures: Multipoint exponential LOD scores by latent class assignment and parametric heterogeneity LOD scores. Results: Latent class analyses identified 4 classes, with 2 demonstrating familial aggregation. The first (LC2) described a group with severe negative symptoms, disorganization, and pronounced functional impairment, resembling "deficit schizophrenia." The second (LC3) described a group with minimal functional impairment, mild or absent negative symptoms, and low disorganization. Using the negative/deficit subtype, we detected genome-wide significant linkage to 1q23-25 (LOD = 3.78, empiric genome-wide P = .01). This region was not detected using the DSM-IV schizophrenia diagnosis, but has been strongly implicated in schizophrenia pathogenesis by previous linkage and association studies.Variants in the 1q region may specifically increase risk for a negative/deficit schizophrenia subtype. Alternatively, these results may reflect increased familiality/heritability of the negative class, the presence of multiple 1q schizophrenia risk genes, or a pleiotropic 1q risk locus or loci, with stronger genotype-phenotype correlation with negative/deficit symptoms. Using the second familial latent class, we identified nominally significant linkage to the original 10q peak region. Conclusion: Genetic analyses of heritable, homogeneous phenotypes may improve the power of linkage and association studies of schizophrenia and thus have relevance to the design and analysis of genome-wide association studies

    A large-scale genome-wide cross-trait analysis reveals shared genetic architecture between Alzheimer’s disease and gastrointestinal tract disorders

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    Consistent with the concept of the gut-brain phenomenon, observational studies suggest a relationship between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders; however, their underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we analyse several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) summary statistics (N = 34,652–456,327), to assess the relationship of AD with GIT disorders. Findings reveal a positive significant genetic overlap and correlation between AD and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), peptic ulcer disease (PUD), gastritis-duodenitis, irritable bowel syndrome and diverticulosis, but not inflammatory bowel disease. Cross-trait meta-analysis identifies several loci (Pmeta-analysis \u3c 5 × 10−8) shared by AD and GIT disorders (GERD and PUD) including PDE4B, BRINP3, ATG16L1, SEMA3F, HLA-DRA, SCARA3, MTSS2, PHB, and TOMM40. Colocalization and gene-based analyses reinforce these loci. Pathway-based analyses demonstrate significant enrichment of lipid metabolism, autoimmunity, lipase inhibitors, PD-1 signalling, and statin mechanisms, among others, for AD and GIT traits. Our findings provide genetic insights into the gut-brain relationship, implicating shared but non-causal genetic susceptibility of GIT disorders with AD’s risk. Genes and biological pathways identified are potential targets for further investigation in AD, GIT disorders, and their comorbidity

    Genetic variants underlying risk of endometriosis: insights from meta-analysis of eight genome-wide association and replication datasets

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    BACKGROUND Endometriosis is a heritable common gynaecological condition influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have proved successful in identifying common genetic variants of moderate effects for various complex diseases. To date, eight GWAS and replication studies from multiple populations have been published on endometriosis. In this review, we investigate the consistency and heterogeneity of the results across all the studies and their implications for an improved understanding of the aetiology of the condition. METHODS Meta-analyses were conducted on four GWASs and four replication studies including a total of 11 506 cases and 32 678 controls, and on the subset of studies that investigated associations for revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) Stage III/IV including 2859 cases. The datasets included 9039 cases and 27 343 controls of European (Australia, Belgium, Italy, UK, USA) and 2467 cases and 5335 controls of Japanese ancestry. Fixed and Han and Elkin random-effects models, and heterogeneity statistics (Cochran's Q test), were used to investigate the evidence of the nine reported genome-wide significant loci across datasets and populations. RESULTS Meta-analysis showed that seven out of nine loci had consistent directions of effect across studies and populations, and six out of nine remained genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10−8), including rs12700667 on 7p15.2 (P = 1.6 × 10−9), rs7521902 near WNT4 (P = 1.8 × 10−15), rs10859871 near VEZT (P = 4.7 × 10−15), rs1537377 near CDKN2B-AS1 (P = 1.5 × 10−8), rs7739264 near ID4 (P = 6.2 × 10−10) and rs13394619 in GREB1 (P = 4.5 × 10−8). In addition to the six loci, two showed borderline genome-wide significant associations with Stage III/IV endometriosis, including rs1250248 in FN1 (P = 8 × 10−8) and rs4141819 on 2p14 (P = 9.2 × 10−8). Two independent inter-genic loci, rs4141819 and rs6734792 on chromosome 2, showed significant evidence of heterogeneity across datasets (P < 0.005). Eight of the nine loci had stronger effect sizes among Stage III/IV cases, implying that they are likely to be implicated in the development of moderate to severe, or ovarian, disease. While three out of nine loci were inter-genic, the remaining were in or near genes with known functions of biological relevance to endometriosis, varying from roles in developmental pathways to cellular growth/carcinogenesis. CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis shows remarkable consistency in endometriosis GWAS results across studies, with little evidence of population-based heterogeneity. They also show that the phenotypic classifications used in GWAS to date have been limited. Stronger associations with Stage III/IV disease observed for most loci emphasize the importance for future studies to include detailed sub-phenotype information. Functional studies in relevant tissues are needed to understand the effect of the variants on downstream biological pathways

    Fine mapping of variants associated with endometriosis in the WNT4 region on chromosome 1p36

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    Genome-wide association studies show strong evidence of association with endometriosis for markers on chromosome 1p36 spanning the potential candidate genes WNT4, CDC42 and LINC00339. WNT4 is involved in development of the uterus, and the expression of CDC42 and LINC00339 are altered in women with endometriosis. We conducted fine mapping to examine the role of coding variants in WNT4 and CDC42 and determine the key SNPs with strongest evidence of association in this region. We identified rare coding variants in WNT4 and CDC42 present only in endometriosis cases. The frequencies were low and cannot account for the common signal associated with increased risk of endometriosis. Genotypes for five common SNPs in the region of chromosome 1p36 show stronger association signals when compared with rs7521902 reported in published genome scans. Of these, three SNPs rs12404660, rs3820282, and rs55938609 were located in DNA sequences with potential functional roles including overlap with transcription factor binding sites for FOXA1, FOXA2, ESR1, and ESR2. Functional studies will be required to identify the gene or genes implicated in endometriosis risk

    Shared Molecular Genetic Mechanisms Underlie Endometriosis and Migraine Comorbidity

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    Observational epidemiological studies indicate that endometriosis and migraine co-occur within individuals more than expected by chance. However, the aetiology and biological mechanisms underlying their comorbidity remain unknown. Here we examined the relationship between endometriosis and migraine using genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effect concordance analysis found a significant concordance of SNP risk effects across endometriosis and migraine GWAS. Linkage disequilibrium score regression analysis found a positive and highly significant genetic correlation (rG = 0.38, P = 2.30 × 10−25) between endometriosis and migraine. A meta-analysis of endometriosis and migraine GWAS data did not reveal novel genome-wide significant SNPs, and Mendelian randomisation analysis found no evidence for a causal relationship between the two traits. However, gene-based analyses identified two novel loci for migraine. Also, we found significant enrichment of genes nominally associated (Pgene 0.05) with both traits (Pbinomial-test = 9.83 × 10−6). Combining gene-based p-values across endometriosis and migraine, three genes, two (TRIM32 and SLC35G6) of which are at novel loci, were genome-wide significant. Genes having Pgene 0.1 for both endometriosis and migraine (Pbinomial-test = 1.85 ×10−°3) were significantly enriched for biological pathways, including interleukin-1 receptor binding, focal adhesion-PI3K-Akt-mTOR-signaling, MAPK and TNF-α signalling. Our findings further confirm the comorbidity of endometriosis and migraine and indicate a non-causal relationship between the two traits, with shared genetically-controlled biological mechanisms underlying the co-occurrence of the two disorders

    Using monozygotic twins to dissect common genes in Posttraumatic stress disorder and migraine

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    Epigenetic mechanisms have been associated with genes involved in Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD often co-occurs with other health conditions such as depression, cardiovascular disorder and respiratory illnesses. PTSD and migraine have previously been reported to be symptomatically positively correlated with each other, but little is known about the genes involved. The aim of this study was to understand the comorbidity between PTSD and migraine using a monozygotic twin disease discordant study design in six pairs of monozygotic twins discordant for PTSD and 15 pairs of monozygotic twins discordant for migraine. DNA from peripheral blood was run on Illumina EPIC arrays and analyzed. Multiple testing correction was performed using the Bonferroni method and 10% false discovery rate (FDR). We validated 11 candidate genes previously associated with PTSD includin
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