666 research outputs found

    Shorter Is Better: The α-(l)-Threofuranosyl Nucleic Acid Modification Improves Stability, Potency, Safety, and Ago2 Binding and Mitigates Off-Target Effects of Small Interfering RNAs.

    No full text
    Chemical modifications are necessary to ensure the metabolic stability and efficacy of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics. Here, we describe analyses of the α-(l)-threofuranosyl nucleic acid (TNA) modification, which has a shorter 3'-2' internucleotide linkage than the natural DNA and RNA, in the context of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs). The TNA modification enhanced nuclease resistance more than 2'-O-methyl or 2'-fluoro ribose modifications. TNA-containing siRNAs were prepared as triantennary N-acetylgalactosamine conjugates and were tested in cultured cells and mice. With the exceptions of position 2 of the antisense strand and position 11 of the sense strand, the TNA modification did not inhibit the activity of the RNA interference machinery. In a rat toxicology study, TNA placed at position 7 of the antisense strand of the siRNA mitigated off-target effects, likely due to the decrease in the thermodynamic binding affinity relative to the 2'-O-methyl residue. Analysis of the crystal structure of an RNA octamer with a single TNA on each strand showed that the tetrose sugar adopts a C4'-exo pucker. Computational models of siRNA antisense strands containing TNA bound to Argonaute 2 suggest that TNA is well accommodated in the region kinked by the enzyme. The combined data indicate that the TNA nucleotides are promising modifications expected to increase the potency, duration of action, and safety of siRNAs

    Erratum to: Search for exclusive Higgs and Z boson decays to Ï•Îł and ÏÎł with the ATLAS detector