180,419 research outputs found

    Advances in extracellular vesicle-based combination therapies for spinal cord injury

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    Spinal cord injury is a severe insult to the central nervous system that causes persisting neurological deficits. The currently available treatments involve surgical, medical, and rehabilitative strategies. However, none of these techniques can markedly reverse neurological deficits. Recently, extracellular vesicles from various cell sources have been applied to different models of spinal cord injury, thereby generating new cell-free therapies for the treatment of spinal cord injury. However, the use of extracellular vesicles alone is still associated with some notable shortcomings, such as their uncertainty in targeting damaged spinal cord tissues and inability to provide structural support to damaged axons. Therefore, this paper reviews the latest combined strategies for the use of extracellular vesicle-based technology for spinal cord injury, including the combination of extracellular vesicles with nanoparticles, exogenous drugs and/or biological scaffold materials, which facilitate the targeting ability of extracellular vesicles and the combinatorial effects with extracellular vesicles. We also highlight issues relating to the clinical transformation of these extracellular vesicle-based combination strategies for the treatment of spinal cord injury

    Supplemental Material - Granulin in renal tubular epithelia is associated with interstitial inflammation and activates the TLR9-IFN-α pathway in lupus nephritis

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    Supplemental Material for Granulin in renal tubular epithelia is associated with interstitial inflammation and activates the TLR9-IFN-α pathway in lupus nephritis by Lanting Huang, Yijun Dai, Zhenbo Geng, Hongyan He and Fuyuan Hong</p

    Ship recycling in developing economies of South Asia: Changing liability to a commodity

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    The end-of-life (EOL) of ships which is neglected and considered a liability by developed economies of the western world. However, it has become a commodity in the developing economies of South Asian countries. Ship recycling activities are considered extremely dangerous by the International Labour Organization (ILO); however, if ship recycling operations are well-managed then they can play a vital role in achieving circular economy and UN sustainable development goals. This study critically examines recent developments in key ship recycling nations, shedding light on both opportunities and challenges faced by this evolving industry. By delving into the socio-economic benefits and presenting a nuanced assessment of the current state of ship recycling, this research aims to bridge the gap between perceived risks and untapped potential. Furthermore, a strategic analysis using SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) methodology is employed to dissect the ship recycling landscape in South Asian countries. This analysis discerns the inherent strengths and opportunities that can be harnessed for sustainable growth, while also acknowledging and addressing the weaknesses and threats that demand careful consideration in the execution of ship recycling operations. This comprehensive exploration underscores the urgent need for a holistic understanding of the ship recycling industry, fostering dialogue and collaboration towards fostering responsible practices and maximizing the positive impact of ship recycling on both local economies and global sustainability goals

    Video_1_Efficacy and safety of intercostal nerve anastomosis in immediate subpectoral prosthetic breast reconstruction after nipple–areola-sparing mastectomy: a randomized, controlled, open-label clinical study.mp4

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    PurposeThis aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of intercostal nerve anastomosis among breast cancer patients who undergo immediate subpectoral prosthetic breast reconstruction after nipple–areola-sparing mastectomy.MethodsFrom 2022 to 2023, female patients between the ages of 20 and 60 diagnosed with stage I–IIIA breast cancer, who required and were willing to undergo immediate subpectoral prosthetic breast reconstruction after nipple–areola-sparing mastectomy, were screened and assigned to take the operation with (treatment group) or without (control group) intercostal nerve anastomosis (the nerves with appropriate length and thickness were selected from the 2nd-4th intercostal nerves, which were then dissociated and anastomosed to the posterior areola tissue). A radial incision at the surface projection of the tumor location was used. The patients’ breast local sensation was assessed using Semmes–Weinstein monofilaments before the operation as well as at 10 days, 3 months, and 6 months postoperatively. Furthermore, the patients’ quality of life was evaluated 6 months postoperatively using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Adverse events, operation duration, drainage volume, and the duration of drainage tube carrying time were also monitored and recorded.ResultsCompared to the pre-operative period, a significant decrease in local sensation was observed 10 days after surgery in both groups. However, the control group showed a significant reduction in sensation at 3 and 6 months postoperatively, while the treatment group showed noticeable recovery. A statistically significant difference (P ConclusionThis study indicated that intercostal nerve anastomosis improved the local sensation and quality of life of patients who underwent immediate subpectoral prosthetic breast reconstruction after nipple–areola-sparing mastectomy.Clinical Trial Registrationhttps://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.html?proj=42487, identifier ChiCTR1900026340.</p

    <i>SOWAHB</i> polymorphisms affect thyroid cancer risk in the Chinese Han population

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    This study aimed to detect the correlation between SOWAHB polymorphisms and Thyroid cancer (TC) risk in the Chinese Han population. We genotyped SOWAHB variants in 510 TC patients and 509 controls using Agena MassARRAY. We assessed the association between SOWAHB polymorphisms and TC susceptibility, with the significant results evaluated through FPRP analysis. We predicted TC risk by the SNP-SNP interaction, analyzed by MDR. Carriers with rs2703129 CC had a lower probability of TC (codominant, recessive: p = 0.002), while subjects with rs1874564 AG had an increased risk of developing TC (codominant, recessive: p = 0.000, log-additive: p = 0.028). In subjects aged > 45 years, rs2703129 may reduce TC predisposition (codominant: p = 0.011, recessive: p = 0.007), but there was an increased association between rs1874564 and TC risk (codominant: p = 0.030, dominant: p = 0.047). Also, rs2703129 was associated with a lower risk of TC among males (codominant: p = 0.018, recessive: p = 0.013). Conversely, rs1874564 was associated with an increased risk of TC in females (codominant: p = 0.001, dominant: p = 0.003). SOWAHB SNPs were related to the occurrence of TC, and rs2703129 may be a protective site for TC.</p

    DataSheet1_Characterization of active peptides derived from three leeches and comparison of their anti-thrombotic mechanisms using the tail vein thrombosis model in mice and metabonomics.docx

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    Background and aims: The increasing incidence of cardiovascular diseases has created an urgent need for safe and effective anti-thrombotic agents. Leech, as a traditional Chinese medicine, has the effect of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis, but its real material basis and mechanism of action for the treatment of diseases such as blood stasis and thrombosis have not been reported.Methods: In this study, Whitmania Pigra Whitman (WPW), Hirudo nipponica Whitman (HNW) and Whitmania acranutata Whitman (WAW) were hydrolyzed by biomimetic enzymatic hydrolysis to obtain the active peptides of WPW (APP), the active peptides of HNW (APH) and the active peptides of WAW (APA), respectively. Then their structures were characterized by sykam amino acid analyzer, fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), circular dichroism (CD) spectrometer and LC-MS. Next, the anti-thrombotic activities of APP, APH and APA were determined by carrageenan-induced tail vein thrombosis model in mice, and the anti-thrombotic mechanisms of high-dose APP group (HAPP), high-dose APH group (HAPH) and high-dose APA group (HAPA) were explored based on UHPLC-Q-Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometry.Results: The results showed that the amino acid composition of APP, APH and APA was consistent, and the proportion of each amino acid was few different. The results of FT-IR and CD showed that there were no significant differences in the proportion of secondary structures (such as β-sheet and random coil) and infrared absorption peaks between APP, APH and APA. Mass spectrometry data showed that there were 43 common peptides in APP, APH and APA, indicating that the three have common material basis. APP, APH and APA could significantly inhibit platelet aggregation, reduce black-tail length, whole blood viscosity (WBV), plasma viscosity (PV), and Fibrinogen (FIB), and prolong coagulation time, including activated partial thrombin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT) and thrombin time (TT). In addition, 24 metabolites were identified as potential biomarkers associated with thrombosis development. Among these, 19, 23, and 20 metabolites were significantly normalized after administration of HAPP, HAPH, and HAPA in the mice, respectively. Furthermore, the intervention mechanism of HAPP, HAPH and HAPA on tail vein thrombosis mainly involved in linoleic acid metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis and ether lipid metabolism.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that APP, APH and APA can exert their anti-blood stasis and anti-thrombotic activities by interfering with disordered metabolic pathways in vivo, and there is no significant difference in their efficacies.</p

    Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation to Recover Memory and Learning Trial (AFFIRMING): Rationale and Design of a Multi-center, Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Background: People with atrial fibrillation (AF) have elevated risk of developing cognitive impairment. At present, there is a dearth of randomized controlled trials investigating cognitive impairment management in patients with AF. The Atrial Fibrillation Follow-up Investigation to Recover Memory and learning (AFFIRMING) study is aimed at evaluating the potential for computerized cognitive training to improve cognitive function in patients with AF. Methods: The study is a multi-center, double-blind, randomized controlled study using a 1:1 parallel design. A total of 200 patients with AF and mild cognitive decline without dementia are planned to be recruited. The intervention group will use the adaptive training software with changes in difficulty, whereas the positive control group will use basic training software with minimal or no variation in difficulty level. At the end of 12 weeks, the participants will be unblinded, and the positive control group will stop training. The intervention group will be rerandomized 1:1 to stop training or continue training. All participants will be followed up until 24 weeks. The primary endpoint is the proportion of the improvement of the global cognitive function at week 12 compared with baseline, using the Basic Cognitive Ability Test (BCAT)

    Search for vector-boson resonances decaying into a top quark and a bottom quark using pp collisions at s = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector