289 research outputs found

    The conceptualisation of health and disease in veterinary medicine

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The concept of health, as well as the concept of disease, is central in veterinary medicine. However, the definitions "health" and "disease" are not generally acknowledged by veterinarians. The aim of this study was to examine how the concepts "health" and "disease" are defined in veterinary textbooks.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>Veterinary textbooks in several disciplines were investigated, but only textbooks with explicit definitions of the concepts were selected for examination.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Eighty out of the 500 relevant books within veterinary medicine were written for non-veterinarians. Eight percent of the books had an explicit definition of health and/or disease. More frequently, textbooks written for non veterinarians did have definitions of health or disease, compared to textbooks written for professionals. A division of health definitions in five different categories was suggested, namely:</p> <p>1. Health as normality, 2. Health as biological function, 3. Health as homeostasis, 4. Health as physical and psychological well-being and 5. Health as productivity including reproduction.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Few veterinary textbooks had any health or disease definition at all. Furthermore, explicit definitions of health stated by the authors seemed to have little impact on how health and disease are handled within the profession. Veterinary medicine would probably gain from theoretical discussions about health and disease.</p

    Vitamin E and selenium plasma concentrations in weanling pigs under field conditions in Norwegian pig herds

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    BACKGROUND: The status of α-tocopherol (vit E) and selenium (Se) has been shown to influence disease resistance in pigs, and may be important for the health of weanling pigs. METHODS: Plasma levels of both vit E and Se were followed in weanling pigs under field conditions in six Norwegian pig herds. Plasma vit E and Se were measured in 3 sows from each herd and 4 piglets in the litter of each sow at the day before weaning (day -1); and in the same piglets at days 4, 8 and 18 after weaning. RESULTS: Mean plasma vit E was 4.0 μg/ml in the sows and 2.6 μg/ml in the piglets at day -1, fell to 1.6 μg/ml in the weanling pigs at day 4, and remained low. Mean plasma Se was 0.22 μg/g in the sows and 0.08 μg/g in the piglets at day -1, rose to 0.10 μg/g in the weanlings at day 4, and continued rising. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that vit E and Se supplementation to piglets and weanling pigs in Norway may still be suboptimal, but that levels of the two nutrients partially compensate for each other in the weaning period

    Deep-level defects in n-type GaAsBi alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and their influence on optical properties

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    Deep-level defects in n-type GaAs1-x Bi x having 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.023 grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy at substrate temperature of 378 °C have been injvestigated by deep level transient spectroscopy. The optical properties of the layers have been studied by contactless electroreflectance and photoluminescence. We find that incorporating Bi suppresses the formation of GaAs-like electron traps, thus reducing the total trap concentration in dilute GaAsBi layers by over two orders of magnitude compared to GaAs grown under the same conditions. In order to distinguish between Bi- and host-related traps and to identify their possible origin, we used the GaAsBi band gap diagram to correlate their activation energies in samples with different Bi contents. This approach was recently successfully applied for the identification of electron traps in n-type GaAs1-x N x and assumes that the activation energy of electron traps decreases with the Bi (or N)-related downward shift of the conduction band. On the basis of this diagram and under the support of recent theoretical calculations, at least two Bi-related traps were revealed and associated with Bi pair defects, i.e. (VGa+BiGa)(-/2-) and (AsGa+BiGa)(0/1-). In the present work it is shown that these defects also influence the photoluminescence properties of GaAsBi alloys

    Effects of Aesthetic Chills on a Cardiac Signature of Emotionality

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    Previous studies have shown that a cardiac signature of emotionality (referred to as EK, which can be computed from the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram, ECG), predicts inter-individual differences in the tendency to experience and express positive emotion. Here, we investigated whether EK values can be transiently modulated during stimulation with participant-selected music pieces and film scenes that elicit strongly positive emotion. The phenomenon of aesthetic chills, as indicated by measurable piloerection on the forearm, was used to accurately locate moments of peak emotional responses during stimulation. From 58 healthy participants, continuous EK values, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were recorded during stimulation with film scenes and music pieces, and were related to the aesthetic chills. EK values, as well as heart rate, increased significantly during moments of peak positive emotion accompanied by piloerection. These results are the first to provide evidence for an influence of momentary psychological state on a cardiac signature of emotional personality (as reflected in EK values). The possibility to modulate ECG amplitude signatures via stimulation with emotionally significant music pieces and film scenes opens up new perspectives for the use of emotional peak experiences in the therapy of disorders characterized by flattened emotionality, such as depression or schizoid personality disorder

    Occupation, smoking, and chronic obstructive respiratory disorders: a cross sectional study in an industrial area of Catalonia, Spain

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    BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the independent effects of occupational exposures and smoking on chronic bronchitis and airflow obstruction. We assessed the association between lifetime occupational exposures and airflow obstruction in a cross-sectional survey in an urban-industrial area of Catalonia, Spain. METHODS: We interviewed 576 subjects of both sexes aged 20–70 years (response rate 80%) randomly selected from census rolls, using the ATS questionnaire. Forced spirometry was performed by 497 subjects according to ATS normative. RESULTS: Lifetime occupational exposure to dust, gases or fumes was reported by 52% of the subjects (63% in men, 41% in women). Textile industry was the most frequently reported job in relation to these exposures (39%). Chronic cough, expectoration and wheeze were more prevalent in exposed subjects with odds ratios ranging from 1.7 to 2.0 being highest among never-smokers (2.1 to 4.3). Lung function differences between exposed and unexposed subjects were dependent on duration of exposure, but not on smoking habits. Subjects exposed more than 15 years to dusts, gases or fumes had lower lung function values (FEV(1 )-80 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI) -186 to 26; MMEF -163 ml, CI -397 to 71; FEV(1)/FVC ratio -1.7%, CI -3.3 to -0.2) than non-exposed. CONCLUSION: Chronic bronchitis symptoms and airflow obstruction are associated with occupational exposures in a population with a high employment in the textile industry. Lung function impairment was related to the duration of occupational exposure, being independent of the effect of smoking

    Effect of primary care physicians' use of estimated glomerular filtration rate on the timing of their subspecialty referral decisions

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Primary care providers' suboptimal recognition of the severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) may contribute to untimely referrals of patients with CKD to subspecialty care. It is unknown whether U.S. primary care physicians' use of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) rather than serum creatinine to estimate CKD severity could improve the timeliness of their subspecialty referral decisions.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We conducted a cross-sectional study of 154 United States primary care physicians to assess the effect of use of eGFR (versus creatinine) on the timing of their subspecialty referrals. Primary care physicians completed a questionnaire featuring questions regarding a hypothetical White or African American patient with progressing CKD. We asked primary care physicians to identify the serum creatinine and eGFR levels at which they would recommend patients like the hypothetical patient be referred for subspecialty evaluation. We assessed significant improvement in the timing [from eGFR < 30 to ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73m<sup>2</sup>) of their recommended referrals based on their use of creatinine versus eGFR.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Primary care physicians recommended subspecialty referrals later (CKD more advanced) when using creatinine versus eGFR to assess kidney function [median eGFR 32 versus 55 mL/min/1.73m<sup>2</sup>, p < 0.001]. Forty percent of primary care physicians significantly improved the timing of their referrals when basing their recommendations on eGFR. Improved timing occurred more frequently among primary care physicians practicing in academic (versus non-academic) practices or presented with White (versus African American) hypothetical patients [adjusted percentage(95% CI): 70% (45-87) versus 37% (reference) and 57% (39-73) versus 25% (reference), respectively, both p ≤ 0.01).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Primary care physicians recommended subspecialty referrals earlier when using eGFR (versus creatinine) to assess kidney function. Enhanced use of eGFR by primary care physicians' could lead to more timely subspecialty care and improved clinical outcomes for patients with CKD.</p