48 research outputs found

    GREEN SYNTHESIS OF PYRAZOLO [3,4]-PYRIMIDINE-THIONES USING IONIC LIQUID 2-METHYL-IMIDAZOLIUM-OXALATE AS POTENT EHRLICH ASCITES CARCINOMA RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS

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    Objective: Pyrazolopyrimidines are heterocyclic molecules containing nitrogen as the main composition, and hence, they exhibit pharmacological efficacy. They are analogs of purines so that possessing wide applications in the field of medicinal chemistry. The main objective of this study is to synthesize different derivatives of pyrazole-pyrimidine classes by adopting simple methodology as well as by employing green chemistry. The purpose of the synthesis of these molecules is to study the antitumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Methods: After literature studies, it makes us to involve in the research of synthetic organic chemistry, especially to synthesize new compounds of pyrazolopyrimidines. We are reported solvent-free synthesis of pyrazolo [3,4-d]-pyrimidine-thiones through ethyl acetoacetate, hydrazine hydrate, thiourea, and different benzaldehydes. An ionic liquid 2-methyl-imidazolium-oxalate catalyzed the reactions under ultrasonication bath. Both conventional and ultrasonic methods were employed and comparison studies have been made. It was found that ultrasonic method completed the reaction quicker than the conventional method. All the synthesized compounds were confirmed their structures by 1HNMR, Fourier transform infrared, 13C-NMR, and elemental analysis spectra. The compounds were tested for in vitro anticancer activity against EAC cell lines. Most compounds revealed significant anticancer activity relative to doxorubicin as a positive control with inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. Results: Ultrasonication method is a simple method under which all the reactions were completed at faster time (<7 min) compared to the convention method. Among eight molecules, 8a and 8d completed the reactions at a faster rate. We reported IC50 values of all the molecules, in which 8e and 8g were exhibited excellent potency against EAC cell lines at different concentrations . Conclusions: Ultrasonication method is an excellent method for the organic synthesis. We are herein reported that under this method, all the reactions are completed within 7 min. Hence, it is superior method than the conventional method. All synthesized molecules have shown good inhibitor potency against EAC cell lines. Among them, two molecules 8e and 8g have shown excellent inhibitor potency

    Insecticidal Evaluation of Bridelia Micrantha and Dalbergia Lactea Aqueous Extracts for the Control of Podagrica Uniforma (Jacoby) and Nisotra Dilecta (Jacoby) (Coleoptera: Chysomelidae) Infestation on Okra

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    Insect pest infestation is a major factor militating against okra production and farmers generally adopt synthetic insecticides for its management. A field trial was undertaken to evaluate the insecticidal potency of Bridelia micrantha and Dalbergia lactea for the management of Podagrica uniforma (Jacoby) and Nisotra dilecta (Jacoby) insect pest of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench). The treatments consisted of aqueous leaf extracts of Bridelia micrantha and Dalbergia lactea and Cypermethrin as check; laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design and repli-cated three times. Data was collected on insect population before treatment application and 3 days after spraying of insecticides at 28, 35, 42, 56 days after planting (DAP). Yield parameters data collected were number of fruits and fruit weight. Results obtained showed that the plant extracts exhibited effectiveness in reducing the insect population and improved okra fruit yield compared to Cypermethrin. The order of effectiveness in decreasing sequence was found to be Cypermethrin ˃ D. lacteal ˃ B. micrantha. D. lacteal and B. micrantha crude extracts could be explored as promising insecticidal agents to provide valuable alternatives to chemical control of insect infestation on okra. Further study is recommended to determine the chemical constituents responsible for the plant insecticidal activity

    Influence of the downwash airflow in Hexacopter Drone on the spray distribution pattern of boom sprayer

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    The spray characteristics of drone sprayers are significantly influenced by the downwash airflow produced by Drone multi-rotors. The present study aimed to study the influence of downwash airflow and the operational parameters of Drone sprayer, viz., flight height, travel speed, rotor configuration, payload and wind velocity on the spray distribution pattern for boom sprayer attachment to Drone. The boom type sprayer consisted of four numbers of flat fan nozzles placed at three different spacing viz., 30, 45 and 60 cm between each nozzle. The spray distribution pattern of the Hexacopter Drone was studied at three different operating pressures, viz., 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kg cm-2. A spray patternator of 5 m x 5 m was developed per the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) standard to study the spray uniformity of volume distribution pattern. The best spray uniformity was found as 0.37 % CV value at 60 cm nozzle spacing and 4 kg cm-2 operating pressure. The optimised parameters viz., 60 cm of nozzle spacing and 4 kg cm-2 operating pressure, the influence of downwash airflow on the spray volume distribution of hexacopter Drone with boom spray attachment were studied. The Drone hovered at three different heights, viz., 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 m from the top of the patternator and spray operating pressure was maintained at 4 kg cm-2. It was observed that less volume of spray was collected at the middle portion when the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was hovered at 1.0 m height due to the direct impact of downwash airflow of rotors. The uniform spray volume distribution pattern was observed when Drone hovered from 1.0 m to 3.0 m height. A round vertex pattern of spray pattern was generated with boom type nozzles configuration due to the direct impact of downwash airflow of rotors. This study will be helpful in the configuration of nozzles attached to the drone sprayers, optimization of spray operational parameters, and revealing spray volume distribution pattern

    ANTIPROLIFERATIVE, ADME AND POTENTIAL IN SILICO G6PDH INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF NOVEL 2-(1-BENZOFURAN-2-YL)-4-(5-PHENYL-4H-1, 2, 4-TRIAZOL-3-YL) QUINOLINE DERIVATIVES

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    Objectives: Synthesis of new 2-(1-benzofuran-2-yl)-4-(5-phenyl-4H-1, 2, 4-triazol-3-yl) quinoline and its derivatives for antiproliferative potential against cancer cells.Methods: The general methods were employed for the synthesis and the structures were confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectral analysis. The antiproliferative activity was performed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and molecular docking study were performed by Auto Dock Tools. In silico Absorption-Distribution-Metabolism-Excretion-Toxicity (ADMET) study for the drug, likeliness was carried out on ACD/lab-2.Results: The compound 3l showed 44, 44, 38 and 37 % inhibition against MCF-7, HepG2, Colo205 and HeLa cell lines, respectively; whereas, the compounds 3i and 3j exhibited 49 and 42 % inhibition against MCF-7 cell line. The molecular docking study revealed that the compound 3i has the lowest binding energy (-8.60 Kcal mol-1), suggesting to be potentially best inhibitor of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH). The in silico ADME analysis also revealed that compound 3i does not violate any of the Lipinski rules of five and has the best stimulative human colonic absorption up to 95 %.Conclusion: The study reveals that the compounds containing benzofuran coupled nitrogen heterocycles are essential for activity as they possess excellent drug-like characteristics.Â

    Measurement of the Double-Differential Muon-neutrino Charged-Current Inclusive Cross Section in the NOvA Near Detector

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    We report cross-section measurements of the final-state muon kinematics for \numu charged-current interactions in the NOvA near detector using an accumulated 8.09×1020\times10^{20} protons-on-target (POT) in the NuMI beam. We present the results as a double-differential cross section in the observed outgoing muon energy and angle, as well as single-differential cross sections in the derived neutrino energy, EνE_\nu, and square of the four-momentum transfer, Q2Q^2. We compare the results to inclusive cross-section predictions from various neutrino event generators via χ2\chi^2 calculations using a covariance matrix that accounts for bin-to-bin correlations of systematic uncertainties. These comparisons show a clear discrepancy between the data and each of the tested predictions at forward muon angle and low Q2Q^2, indicating a missing suppression of the cross section in current neutrino-nucleus scattering models

    Measurement of neutrino-induced neutral-current coherent π⁰ production in the NOvA near detector

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    The cross section of neutrino-induced neutral-current coherent π⁰ production on a carbon-dominated target is measured in the NOvA near detector. This measurement uses a narrow-band neutrino beam with an average neutrino energy of 2.7 GeV, which is of interest to ongoing and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The measured, flux-averaged cross section is σ = 13.8±0.9(stat)±2.3(syst)×10⁻⁴⁰ cm²/nucleus, consistent with model prediction. This result is the most precise measurement of neutral-current coherent π⁰ production in the few-GeV neutrino energy region

    Measurement of neutrino-induced neutral-current coherent π⁰ production in the NOvA near detector

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    The cross section of neutrino-induced neutral-current coherent π⁰ production on a carbon-dominated target is measured in the NOvA near detector. This measurement uses a narrow-band neutrino beam with an average neutrino energy of 2.7 GeV, which is of interest to ongoing and future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The measured, flux-averaged cross section is σ = 13.8±0.9(stat)±2.3(syst)×10⁻⁴⁰ cm²/nucleus, consistent with model prediction. This result is the most precise measurement of neutral-current coherent π⁰ production in the few-GeV neutrino energy region

    An Improved Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters by the NOvA Experiment

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    We present new νμνe\nu_\mu\rightarrow\nu_e, νμνμ\nu_\mu\rightarrow\nu_\mu, νμνe\overline{\nu}_\mu\rightarrow\overline{\nu}_e, and νμνμ\overline{\nu}_\mu\rightarrow\overline{\nu}_\mu oscillation measurements by the NOvA experiment, with a 50% increase in neutrino-mode beam exposure over the previously reported results. The additional data, combined with previously published neutrino and antineutrino data, are all analyzed using improved techniques and simulations. A joint fit to the νe\nu_e, νμ\nu_\mu, νe\overline{\nu}_e, and νμ\overline{\nu}_\mu candidate samples within the 3-flavor neutrino oscillation framework continues to yield a best-fit point in the normal mass ordering and the upper octant of the θ23\theta_{23} mixing angle, with Δm322=(2.41±0.07)×103\Delta m^{2}_{32} = (2.41\pm0.07)\times 10^{-3} eV2^2 and sin2θ23=0.570.04+0.03\sin^2\theta_{23} = 0.57^{+0.03}_{-0.04}. The data disfavor combinations of oscillation parameters that give rise to a large asymmetry in the rates of νe\nu_e and νe\overline{\nu}_e appearance. This includes values of the CP-violating phase in the vicinity of δCP=π/2\delta_\text{CP} = \pi/2 which are excluded by >3σ>3\sigma for the inverted mass ordering, and values around δCP=3π/2\delta_\text{CP} = 3\pi/2 in the normal ordering which are disfavored at 2σ\sigma confidence.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures. Supplementary material attached (7 figures

    Search for multimessenger signals in NOvA coincident with LIGO/Virgo detections

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    Using the NOvA neutrino detectors, a broad search has been performed for any signal coincident with 28 gravitational wave events detected by the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration between September 2015 and July 2019. For all of these events, NOvA is sensitive to possible arrival of neutrinos and cosmic rays of GeV and higher energies. For five (seven) events in the NOvA Far (Near) Detector, timely public alerts from the LIGO/Virgo Collaboration allowed recording of MeV-scale events. No signal candidates were found
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