2,892 research outputs found

    Systematic review and meta-analysis of the genetics of peripheral arterial disease

    No full text
    Background: Peripheral artery disease (PAD) impacts more than 200 million people worldwide. The understanding of the genetics of the disease and its clinical implications continue to evolve. This systematic review provides a comprehensive summary of all DNA variants that have been studied in association with the diagnosis and progression of PAD, with a meta-analysis of the ones replicated in the literature. Methods: A systematic review of all studies examining DNA variants associated with the diagnosis and progression of PAD was performed. Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were included. A meta-analysis of 13 variants derived from earlier smaller candidate gene studies of the diagnosis of PAD was performed. The literature on the progression of PAD was limited, and a meta-analysis was not feasible because of the heterogeneity in the criteria used to characterize it. Results: A total of 231 DNA variants in 112 papers were studied for the association with the diagnosis of PAD. There were significant variations in the definition of PAD and the selection of controls in the various studies. GWAS have established 19 variants associated with the diagnosis of PAD that were replicated in several large patient cohorts. Only variants in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (rs5498), IL-6 (rs1800795), and hepatic lipase (rs2070895) showed significant association with the diagnosis of PAD. However, these variants were not noted in the published GWAS. Conclusions: Genetic research in the diagnosis of PAD has significant heterogeneity, but recent GWAS have demonstrated variants consistently associated with the disease. More research focusing on the progression of PAD is needed to identify patients at risk of adverse events and develop strategies that would improve their outcomes

    sj-docx-1-ctj-10.1177_17407745231193137 – Supplemental material for Assessing the use of observational methods and real-world data to emulate ongoing randomized controlled trials

    No full text
    Supplemental material, sj-docx-1-ctj-10.1177_17407745231193137 for Assessing the use of observational methods and real-world data to emulate ongoing randomized controlled trials by Joshua D Wallach, Yihong Deng, Eric C Polley, Sanket S Dhruva, Jeph Herrin, Kenneth Quinto, Charu Gandotra, William Crown, Peter Noseworthy, Xiaoxi Yao, Molly Moore Jeffery, Timothy D Lyon, Joseph S Ross and Rozalina G McCoy in Clinical Trials</p

    Apoptotic cell death in disease-Current understanding of the NCCD 2023

    No full text

    Apoptotic cell death in disease-Current understanding of the NCCD 2023.

    No full text
    Apoptosis is a form of regulated cell death (RCD) that involves proteases of the caspase family. Pharmacological and genetic strategies that experimentally inhibit or delay apoptosis in mammalian systems have elucidated the key contribution of this process not only to (post-)embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis, but also to the etiology of multiple human disorders. Consistent with this notion, while defects in the molecular machinery for apoptotic cell death impair organismal development and promote oncogenesis, the unwarranted activation of apoptosis promotes cell loss and tissue damage in the context of various neurological, cardiovascular, renal, hepatic, infectious, neoplastic and inflammatory conditions. Here, the Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death (NCCD) gathered to critically summarize an abundant pre-clinical literature mechanistically linking the core apoptotic apparatus to organismal homeostasis in the context of disease

    Savviness of prey to introduced predators

    No full text
    The prey naivety hypothesis posits that prey are vulnerable to introduced predators because many generations in slow gradual coevolution are needed for appropriate avoidance responses to develop. It predicts that prey will be more responsive to native than introduced predators and less responsive to introduced predators that differ substantially from native predators and from those newly established. To test these predictions, we conducted a global meta-analysis of studies that measured the wariness responses of small mammals to the scent of sympatric mammalian mesopredators. We identified 26 studies that met our selection criteria. These studies comprised 134 experiments reporting on the responses of 36 small mammal species to the scent of six introduced mesopredators and 12 native mesopredators. For each introduced mesopredator, we measured their phylogenetic and functional distance to local native mesopredators and the number of years sympatric with their prey. We used predator and prey body mass as a measure of predation risk. Globally, small mammals were similarly wary of the scent of native and introduced mesopredators; phylogenetic and functional distance between introduced mesopredators and closest native mesopredators had no effect on wariness; and wariness was unrelated to the number of prey generations, or years, since first contact with introduced mesopredators. Small mammal wariness was associated with predator-prey body mass ratio, regardless of the nativity. The one thing animals do not seem to recognize is whether their predators are native.</p

    The chaos in calibrating crop models: Lessons learned from a multi-model calibration exercise.

    No full text
    Calibration, the estimation of model parameters based on fitting the model to experimental data, is among the first steps in many applications of process-based models and has an important impact on simulated values. We propose a novel method of developing guidelines for calibration of process-based models, based on development of recommendations for calibration of the phenology component of crop models. The approach was based on a multi-model study, where all teams were provided with the same data and asked to return simulations for the same conditions. All teams were asked to document in detail their calibration approach, including choices with respect to criteria for best parameters, choice of parameters to estimate and software. Based on an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of the various choices, we propose calibration recommendations that cover a comprehensive list of decisions and that are based on actual practices
    corecore