1,664 research outputs found

    Comparing accuracy of tomosynthesis plus digital mammography or synthetic 2D mammography in breast cancer screening: baseline results of the MAITA RCT consortium.

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    AIM: The analyses here reported aim to compare the screening performance of digital tomosynthesis (DBT) versus mammography (DM). METHODS: MAITA is a consortium of four Italian trials, REtomo, Proteus, Impeto, and MAITA trial. The trials adopted a two-arm randomised design comparing DBT plus DM (REtomo and Proteus) or synthetic-2D (Impeto and MAITA trial) versus DM; multiple vendors were included. Women aged 45 to 69 years were individually randomised to one round of DBT or DM. FINDINGS: From March 2014 to February 2022, 50,856 and 63,295 women were randomised to the DBT and DM arm, respectively. In the DBT arm, 6656 women were screened with DBT plus synthetic-2D. Recall was higher in the DBT arm (5·84% versus 4·96%), with differences between centres. With DBT, 0·8/1000 (95% CI 0·3 to 1·3) more women received surgical treatment for a benign lesion. The detection rate was 51% higher with DBT, ie. 2·6/1000 (95% CI 1·7 to 3·6) more cancers detected, with a similar relative increase for invasive cancers and ductal carcinoma in situ. The results were similar below and over the age of 50, at first and subsequent rounds, and with DBT plus DM and DBT plus synthetic-2D. No learning curve was appreciable. Detection of cancers >= 20 mm, with 2 or more positive lymph nodes, grade III, HER2-positive, or triple-negative was similar in the two arms. INTERPRETATION: Results from MAITA confirm that DBT is superior to DM for the detection of cancers, with a possible increase in recall rate. DBT performance in screening should be assessed locally while waiting for long-term follow-up results on the impact of advanced cancer incidence

    Constraining models for the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays with a novel combined analysis of arrival directions, spectrum, and composition data measured at the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    The UHECR dipole and quadrupole in the latest data from the original Auger and TA surface detectors

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    The sources of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are still unknown, but assuming standard physics, they are expected to lie within a few hundred megaparsecs from us. Indeed, over cosmological distances cosmic rays lose energy to interactions with background photons, at a rate depending on their mass number and energy and properties of photonuclear interactions and photon backgrounds. The universe is not homogeneous at such scales, hence the distribution of the arrival directions of cosmic rays is expected to reflect the inhomogeneities in the distribution of galaxies; the shorter the energy loss lengths, the stronger the expected anisotropies. Galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields can blur and distort the picture, but the magnitudes of the largest-scale anisotropies, namely the dipole and quadrupole moments, are the most robust to their effects. Measuring them with no bias regardless of any higher-order multipoles is not possible except with full-sky coverage. In this work, we achieve this in three energy ranges (approximately 8--16 EeV, 16--32 EeV, and 32--‚ąě EeV) by combining surface-detector data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory until 2020 and at the Telescope Array (TA) until 2019, before the completion of the upgrades of the arrays with new scintillator detectors. We find that the full-sky coverage achieved by combining Auger and TA data reduces the uncertainties on the north-south components of the dipole and quadrupole in half compared to Auger-only results

    Codes, raw predation data on dummy caterpillars, and environmental data about urban green spaces across 26 Brazilian state capitals

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    Data collected by the Urban Predation Risk Network about predation pressure on dummy caterpillars exposed for eight days in 26 small green spaces and 24 forest patches across 26 Brazilian state capitals. The raw predation data describes the type of predator and the day in which each caterpillar was found with marks, as well as the sites' coordinates. The environmental data provides information for each site about precipitation, annual mean temperature, temperature seasonality, elevation, and coordinates. This database also provides summarized information about predation at each site, such as the total number of attacked caterpillars and the number of attacked caterpillars by each predator group. The data files contain a metadata sheet with a description of each column. The code provided was used to assess the local and large-scale drivers of predation pressure on dummy caterpillars in small green spaces and forest patches across 26 Brazilian cities

    A Novel Tool for the Absolute End-to-End Calibration of Fluorescence Telescopes -The XY-Scanner

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    Radio Measurements of the Depth of Air-Shower Maximum at the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    International audienceThe Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), part of the Pierre Auger Observatory, is currently the largest array of radio antenna stations deployed for the detection of cosmic rays, spanning an area of 1717 km2^2 with 153 radio stations. It detects the radio emission of extensive air showers produced by cosmic rays in the 30‚ąí8030-80 MHz band. Here, we report the AERA measurements of the depth of the shower maximum (XmaxX_\text{max}), a probe for mass composition, at cosmic-ray energies between 1017.510^{17.5} to 1018.810^{18.8} eV, which show agreement with earlier measurements with the fluorescence technique at the Pierre Auger Observatory. We show advancements in the method for radio XmaxX_\text{max} reconstruction by comparison to dedicated sets of CORSIKA/CoREAS air-shower simulations, including steps of reconstruction-bias identification and correction, which is of particular importance for irregular or sparse radio arrays. Using the largest set of radio air-shower measurements to date, we show the radio XmaxX_\text{max} resolution as a function of energy, reaching a resolution better than 1515 g cm‚ąí2^{-2} at the highest energies, demonstrating that radio XmaxX_\text{max} measurements are competitive with the established high-precision fluorescence technique. In addition, we developed a procedure for performing an extensive data-driven study of systematic uncertainties, including the effects of acceptance bias, reconstruction bias, and the investigation of possible residual biases. These results have been cross-checked with air showers measured independently with both the radio and fluorescence techniques, a setup unique to the Pierre Auger Observatory

    UHECR arrival directions in the latest data from the original Auger and TA surface detectors and nearby galaxies

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    The distribution of ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray arrival directions appears to be nearly isotropic except for a dipole moment of order 6√ó(E/10¬†EeV)6 \times (E/10~\mathrm{EeV}) per cent. Nonetheless, at the highest energies, as the number of possible candidate sources within the propagation horizon and the magnetic deflections both shrink, smaller-scale anisotropies might be expected to emerge. On the other hand, the flux suppression reduces the statistics available for searching for such anisotropies. In this work, we consider two different lists of candidate sources: a sample of nearby starburst galaxies and the 2MRS catalog tracing stellar mass within 250 Mpc. We combine surface-detector data collected at the Pierre Auger Observatory until 2020 and the Telescope Array until 2019, and use them to test models in which UHECRs comprise an isotropic background and a foreground originating from the candidate sources and randomly deflected by magnetic fields. The free parameters of these models are the energy threshold, the signal fraction, and the search angular scale. We find a correlation between the arrival directions of 11.8%‚ąí3.1%+5.0%11.8\%_{-3.1\%}^{+5.0\%} of cosmic rays detected with E‚Č•38¬†EeVE \ge 38~\mathrm{EeV} by Auger or with E‚Č≥49¬†EeVE \gtrsim 49~\mathrm{EeV} by TA and the position of nearby starburst galaxies on a 15.5‚ąė‚ąí3.2‚ąė+5.3‚ąė{15.5^\circ}_{-3.2^\circ}^{+5.3^\circ} angular scale, with a 4.2ŌÉ post-trial significance, as well as a weaker correlation with the overall galaxy distribution

    AugerPrime Surface Detector Electronics

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    International audienceOperating since 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has led to major advances in our understanding of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The latest findings have revealed new insights that led to the upgrade of the Observatory, with the primary goal of obtaining information on the primary mass of the most energetic cosmic rays on a shower-by-shower basis. In the framework of the upgrade, called AugerPrime, the 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors of the surface array are equipped with plastic scintillators and radio antennas, allowing us to enhance the composition sensitivity. To accommodate new detectors and to increase experimental capabilities, the electronics is also upgraded. This includes better timing with up-to-date GPS receivers, higher sampling frequency, increased dynamic range, and more powerful local processing of the data. In this paper, the design characteristics of the new electronics and the enhanced dynamic range will be described. The manufacturing and test processes will be outlined and the test results will be discussed. The calibration of the SD detector and various performance parameters obtained from the analysis of the first commissioning data will also be presented

    Demonstrating Agreement between Radio and Fluorescence Measurements of the Depth of Maximum of Extensive Air Showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    We show, for the first time, radio measurements of the depth of shower maximum (XmaxX_\text{max}) of air showers induced by cosmic rays that are compared to measurements of the established fluorescence method at the same location. Using measurements at the Pierre Auger Observatory we show full compatibility between our radio and the previously published fluorescence data set, and between a subset of air showers observed simultaneously with both radio and fluorescence techniques, a measurement setup unique to the Pierre Auger Observatory. Furthermore, we show radio XmaxX_\text{max} resolution as a function of energy and demonstrate the ability to make competitive high-resolution XmaxX_\text{max} measurements with even a sparse radio array. With this, we show that the radio technique is capable of cosmic-ray mass composition studies, both at Auger and at other experiments.Comment: Submitted to Phys. Rev. Let

    The number of muons measured in hybrid events detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

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