2,696 research outputs found

    X-Shooting ULLYSES: massive stars at low metallicity. I. Project Description

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    International audienceObservations of individual massive stars, super-luminous supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and gravitational-wave events involving spectacular black-hole mergers, indicate that the low-metallicity Universe is fundamentally different from our own Galaxy. Many transient phenomena will remain enigmatic until we achieve a firm understanding of the physics and evolution of massive stars at low metallicity (Z). The Hubble Space Telescope has devoted 500 orbits to observe 250 massive stars at low Z in the ultraviolet (UV) with the COS and STIS spectrographs under the ULLYSES program. The complementary ``X-Shooting ULLYSES'' (XShootU) project provides enhanced legacy value with high-quality optical and near-infrared spectra obtained with the wide-wavelength coverage X-shooter spectrograph at ESO's Very Large Telescope. We present an overview of the XShootU project, showing that combining ULLYSES UV and XShootU optical spectra is critical for the uniform determination of stellar parameters such as effective temperature, surface gravity, luminosity, and abundances, as well as wind properties such as mass-loss rates in function of Z. As uncertainties in stellar and wind parameters percolate into many adjacent areas of Astrophysics, the data and modelling of the XShootU project is expected to be a game-changer for our physical understanding of massive stars at low Z. To be able to confidently interpret James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) spectra of the first stellar generations, the individual spectra of low Z stars need to be understood, which is exactly where XShootU can deliver

    X-Shooting ULLYSES: massive stars at low metallicity. I. Project Description

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    International audienceObservations of individual massive stars, super-luminous supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and gravitational-wave events involving spectacular black-hole mergers, indicate that the low-metallicity Universe is fundamentally different from our own Galaxy. Many transient phenomena will remain enigmatic until we achieve a firm understanding of the physics and evolution of massive stars at low metallicity (Z). The Hubble Space Telescope has devoted 500 orbits to observe 250 massive stars at low Z in the ultraviolet (UV) with the COS and STIS spectrographs under the ULLYSES program. The complementary ``X-Shooting ULLYSES'' (XShootU) project provides enhanced legacy value with high-quality optical and near-infrared spectra obtained with the wide-wavelength coverage X-shooter spectrograph at ESO's Very Large Telescope. We present an overview of the XShootU project, showing that combining ULLYSES UV and XShootU optical spectra is critical for the uniform determination of stellar parameters such as effective temperature, surface gravity, luminosity, and abundances, as well as wind properties such as mass-loss rates in function of Z. As uncertainties in stellar and wind parameters percolate into many adjacent areas of Astrophysics, the data and modelling of the XShootU project is expected to be a game-changer for our physical understanding of massive stars at low Z. To be able to confidently interpret James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) spectra of the first stellar generations, the individual spectra of low Z stars need to be understood, which is exactly where XShootU can deliver

    Genomic investigations of unexplained acute hepatitis in children

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    Since its first identification in Scotland, over 1,000 cases of unexplained paediatric hepatitis in children have been reported worldwide, including 278 cases in the UK1. Here we report an investigation of 38 cases, 66 age-matched immunocompetent controls and 21 immunocompromised comparator participants, using a combination of genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and immunohistochemical methods. We detected high levels of adeno-associated virus 2 (AAV2) DNA in the liver, blood, plasma or stool from 27 of 28 cases. We found low levels of adenovirus (HAdV) and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) in 23 of 31 and 16 of 23, respectively, of the cases tested. By contrast, AAV2 was infrequently detected and at low titre in the blood or the liver from control children with HAdV, even when profoundly immunosuppressed. AAV2, HAdV and HHV-6 phylogeny excluded the emergence of novel strains in cases. Histological analyses of explanted livers showed enrichment for T cells and B lineage cells. Proteomic comparison of liver tissue from cases and healthy controls identified increased expression of HLA class 2, immunoglobulin variable regions and complement proteins. HAdV and AAV2 proteins were not detected in the livers. Instead, we identified AAV2 DNA complexes reflecting both HAdV-mediated and HHV-6B-mediated replication. We hypothesize that high levels of abnormal AAV2 replication products aided by HAdV and, in severe cases, HHV-6B may have triggered immune-mediated hepatic disease in genetically and immunologically predisposed children

    The Near-Earth Object Surveyor Mission

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    The Near-Earth Object (NEO) Surveyor mission is a NASA observatory designed to discover and characterize near-Earth asteroids and comets. The mission's primary objective is to find the majority of objects large enough to cause severe regional impact damage (>>140 m in effective spherical diameter) within its five-year baseline survey. Operating at the Sun-Earth L1 Lagrange point, the mission will survey to within 45 degrees of the Sun in an effort to find the objects in the most Earth-like orbits. The survey cadence is optimized to provide observational arcs long enough to reliably distinguish near-Earth objects from more distant small bodies that cannot pose an impact hazard. Over the course of its survey, NEO Surveyor will discover ‚ąľ\sim200,000 - 300,000 new NEOs down to sizes as small as ‚ąľ\sim10 m and thousands of comets, significantly improving our understanding of the probability of an Earth impact over the next century.Comment: accepted to PS

    A second update on mapping the human genetic architecture of COVID-19