135 research outputs found

    A Semi-Lagrangian Multiscale Framework for Advection-Dominant Problems

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    We introduce a new parallelizable numerical multiscale method for advection-dominated problems as they often occur in engineering and geosciences. State of the art multiscale simulation methods work well in situations in which stationary and elliptic scenarios prevail but are prone to fail when the model involves dominant lower order terms which is common in applications. We suggest to overcome the associated difficulties through a reconstruction of subgrid variations into a modified basis by solving many independent (local) inverse problems that are constructed in a semi-Lagrangian step. Globally the method looks like a Eulerian method with multiscale stabilized basis. The method is extensible to other types of Galerkin methods, higher dimensions, nonlinear problems and can potentially work with real data. We provide examples inspired by tracer transport in climate systems in one and two dimensions and numerically compare our method to standard methods

    Meteotsunami (\u201cMarrobbio\u201d) of 25\u201326 June 2014 on the Southwestern Coast of Sicily, Italy

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    A major tsunami-like event, locally known as \u2018marrobbio\u2019, impacted the southwestern coast of Sicily on 25\u201326 June 2014. The event was part of a chain of hazardous episodes in the Mediterranean and Black seas during the last week of June 2014 resulting from an anomalous atmospheric system (\u201ctumultuous atmosphere\u201d) propagating eastward over the region. The synoptic patterns and vertical structure of the atmosphere over Sicily at the time of the event indicate that atmospheric wave ducting was responsible for the generation of tsunamigenic air pressure disturbances that produced especially high sea level responses (\u201cmeteotsunamis\u201d) at certain sites along the Sicilian coast. The strongest sea level oscillations were observed at Mazara del Vallo, where a 1-m meteotsunami bore, propagating upstream in the Mazaro River, was generated. The combined effects of external resonance (Proudman resonance on the western Sicilian shelf) and internal resonant conditions (bathymetric and topographic characteristics of specific sites) were found to be the key factors that caused the meteotsunami (marrobbio phenomenon) on the coast of Sicily and the meteobore at Mazara del Vallo

    Representation of microphysical processes in cloud-resolving models: Spectral (bin) microphysics versus bulk parameterization

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    International audienceMost atmospheric motions of different spatial scales and precipitation are closely related to phase transitions in clouds. The continuously increasing resolution of large-scale and mesoscale atmospheric models makes it feasible to treat the evolution of individual clouds. The explicit treatment of clouds requires the simulation of cloud microphysics. Two main approaches describing cloud microphysical properties and processes have been developed in the past four and a half decades: bulk microphysics parameterization and spectral (bin) microphysics (SBM). The development and utilization of both represent an important step forward in cloud modeling. This study presents a detailed survey of the physical basis and the applications of both bulk microphysics parameterization and SBM. The results obtained from simulations of a wide range of atmospheric phenomena, from tropical cyclones through Arctic clouds using these two approaches are compared. Advantages and disadvantages, as well as lines of future development for these methods are discussed

    Cirrus and water vapour transport in the tropical tropopause layer 鈥 Part 2: Roles of ice nucleation and sedimentation, cloud dynamics, and moisture conditions

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    A high-resolution, two-dimensional numerical model is used to study the moisture redistribution following homogeneous ice nucleation induced by Kelvin waves in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). We compare results for dry/moist initial conditions and three levels of complexity for the representation of cloud processes: complete microphysics and cloud radiative effects, likewise but without radiative effects, and instantaneous removal of moisture in excess of saturation upon nucleation. <br><br> Cloud evolution and moisture redistribution are found to be sensitive to initial conditions and cloud processes. Ice sedimentation leads to a downward flux of water, whereas the cloud radiative heating induces upward advection of the cloudy air. The latter results in an upward (downward) flux of water vapour if the cloudy air is moister (drier) than the environment, which is typically when the environment is subsaturated (supersaturated). <br><br> Only a fraction (~25% or less) of the cloud experiences nucleation. Post-nucleation processes (ice depositional growth, sedimentation, and sublimation) are important to cloud morphology, and both dehydrated <i>and</i> hydrated layers may be indicators of TTL cirrus occurrence. The calculation with instantaneous removal of moisture not only misses the hydration but also underestimates dehydration due to (i) nucleation before reaching the minimum saturation mixing ratio, and (ii) lack of moisture removal from sedimenting ice particles below the nucleation level. <br><br> The sensitivity to initial conditions and cloud processes suggests that it is difficult to reach generic, quantitative estimates of cloud-induced moisture redistribution on the basis of case-by-case calculations

    The role of sea&#x2013;land air thermal difference, shape of the coastline and sea surface temperature in the nocturnal offshore convection

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    Nocturnal precipitation cells and lines occur near the coastline in the whole Mediterranean basin in all seasons. The precipitation events are mainly located in areas where coastal mountain ranges and rivers enhance convergence though the interaction of nocturnal mesoscale and local flows (land breeze, katabatic and drainages winds) with prevailing synoptic wind or with other mesoscale and local flows. The methodology used here to study this phenomenon consists of three stages. First, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) radar satellite database is used to detect nocturnal precipitation near the coastline, from 18 to 09 UTC. An event is included in the study if the 3 hours accumulated precipitation detected by TRMM is stationary near the coast, or has moved slightly onshore or offshore, and has lasted no more than six consecutive hours. Second, the NCEP reanalysis database is used to describe the synoptic conditions and to discard precipitation associated with synoptic events (large low pressure areas, dynamic polar fronts, or troughs, for example). In the final step by using the version 3 of the Weather Research Forecast model, we simulate and analyse some of the selected events to determine the role of the land&#x2013;sea temperature differences, the curvature of the coastline and the sea surface temperature.The simulations confirm that the nocturnal precipitation studied in the Mediterranean basin near the coastline is formed from the interaction between relatively warm and wet sea-air with the cold air mass from drainage winds, as well as from the convergence of several drainage winds offshore. The mechanism is the same that is used to explain nocturnal precipitation in tropical areas

    Prevalence study of genetically defined skeletal muscle channelopathies in England.

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    To obtain minimum point prevalence rates for the skeletal muscle channelopathies and to evaluate the frequency distribution of mutations associated with these disorders
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