163 research outputs found

    Subcutaneous immunoglobulins in chronic lymphocytic leukemia with secondary antibody deficiency. A monocentric experience during Covid-19 pandemics

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    Secondary antibody deficiency (SAD) is a frequent manifestation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) that increases the risk of infections. However, no formal guideline are available regarding the eligibility for prophylaxis or the delivery method, dosage, frequency of administration and duration of immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT). The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of subcutaneous IgRT (SCIg) and its impact on quality of life (QoL) of CLL pts in the Covid-19 era. Ten CLL pts with SAD were treated with subcutaneous IgRT (SCIg) at our institution between October 2019 and December 2020. Median age was 66 years and five patients had comorbidities. Seven patients were receiving therapy for CLL when treatment with SCIg was initiated. All pts received 10 g total dose hyaluronidase-free SCIg independently from body weight. The IgG level and CD4/CD8, CD19 and CD16/56 lymphocytes subset were recorded at baseline and every 3 months. No patient experienced infectious events nor Covid-19 mediated interstitial pneumonia while on SCIg therapy. All patients tolerated well the therapy and experienced an increase of IgG levels, which was then stable in time. We conclude that SCIg administration in CLL pts with SAD is efficacious and safe as infectious prophylaxis. This route of administration appears particularly advantageous in the Covid-19 era, because of the self-administration at home which results in improvement in the QoL and reduced treatment expenditures

    Cd200 baseline serum levels predict prognosis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

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    Membrane‚Äźbound CD200 is overexpressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and there is some evidence that its soluble ectodomain (sCD200) could also be involved in the pathophysiology and the disease. However, very little is known about sCD200‚Äôs prognostic significance. sCD200 was tested at diagnosis in 272 patients with CLL and in 78 age‚Äź and sex-matched healthy subjects using a specific human CD200 (OX‚Äź2 membrane glycoprotein) ELISA kit. A significantly higher concentration of sCD200 was found in CLL patients compared to controls. In our cohort, sCD200 was significantly higher in patients who were older than 66 years, with Binet stage C, unmutated IgVH and unfavorable (del11q or del17p) FISH. Time‚Äźto‚Äźfirst treatment and overall survival were significantly shorter in patients with higher sCD200 concentration, using as a cut‚Äźoff 1281 pg/mL, the median value for sCD200 concentration in the whole CLL cohort. However, the prognostic impact of sCD200 was not confirmed in multivariate analysis. Baseline sCD200 values appeared to have an impact on the response to chemotherapy or chemo‚Äźimmunotherapy, but not to targeted agents. Collectively, our data show that sCD200 serum levels correlate with more aggressive clinical and biological features and are able to predict a worse prognosis. This work supports the relevant role of CD200 not only as a diagnostic tool but also as a prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target in CLL

    Circulating Regulatory T-Cell Number Does Not Predict Prognosis of Monoclonal Gammopathies of Uncertain Significance

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    FOXP3-expressing regulatory T-cells (Tregs), which suppress aberrant immune response against self-antigens, also suppress anti-tumor immune response. It has been shown that there is an increased proportion of Tregs in several different human malignancies, although the actual mechanism remains unclear. The research aims to explore the relationship between the number of Tregs and a predict prognosis in particular hematological diseases as monoclonal gammopathies of uncertain significance (MGUS). Tregs were evaluated by means of flow cytometry (CD4+CD25(high/+) CD127(low/-)) in whole peripheral blood of 56 patients with MGUS to predict progression to overt multiple myeloma (MM). In two groups of patients, MGUS versus MGUS evolved to MM, we found a significative difference for the number of white blood cells, but not in terms of clinical and laboratory features evaluated at diagnosis. The study demonstrated the absence of a prognostic relevance of Tregs in MGUS. Nevertheless, their role in these disorders is still to be defined

    Circulating regulatory t-cell number does not predict prognosis of monoclonal gammopathies of uncertain significance

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    FOXP3-expressing regulatory T-cells (Tregs), which suppress aberrant immune response against self-antigens, also suppress anti-tumor immune response. It has been shown that there is an increased proportion of Tregs in several different human malignancies, although the actual mechanism remains unclear. The research aims to explore the relationship between the number of Tregs and a predict prognosis in particular hematological diseases as monoclonal gammopathies of uncertain significance (MGUS). Tregs were evaluated by means of flow cytometry (CD4+CD25high/+ CD127low/‚Äď) in whole peripheral blood of 56 patients with MGUS to predict progression to overt multiple myeloma (MM). In two groups of patients, MGUS versus MGUS evolved to MM, we found a significative difference for the number of white blood cells, but not in terms of clinical and laboratory features evaluated at diagnosis. The study demonstrated the absence of a prognostic relevance of Tregs in MGUS. Nevertheless, their role in these disorders is still to be defined

    CD200 and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Biological and Clinical Relevance

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    CD200, a transmembrane type Ia glycoprotein belonging to the immunoglobulin protein superfamily, is broadly expressed on a wide variety of cell types, such as B lymphocytes, a subset of T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, endothelial and neuronal cells. It delivers immunosuppressive signals through its receptor CD200R, which is expressed on monocytes/myeloid cells and T lymphocytes. Moreover, interaction of CD200 with CD200R has also been reported to play a role in the regulation of tumor immunity. Overexpression of CD200 has been reported in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and hairy cell leukemia but not in mantle cell lymphoma, thus helping to better discriminate between these different B cell malignancies with different prognosis. In this review, we focus on the role of CD200 expression in the differential diagnosis of mature B-cell neoplasms and on the prognostic significance of CD200 expression in CLL, where conflicting results have been published so far. Of interest, increasing evidences indicate that anti-CD200 treatment might be therapeutically beneficial for treating CD200-expressing malignancies, such as CLL

    SF3B1-mutated chronic lymphocytic leukemia shows evidence of NOTCH1 pathway activation including CD20 downregulation

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    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is characterized by a low CD20 expression, in part explained by an epigenetic-driven downregulation triggered by mutations of the NOTCH1 gene. In the present study, by taking advantage of a wide and well-characterized CLL cohort (n=537), we demonstrate that CD20 expression is downregulated in SF3B1-mutated CLL in an extent similar to NOTCH1-mutated CLL. In fact, SF3B1-mutated CLL cells show common features with NOTCH1-mutated CLL cells, including a gene expression profile enriched of NOTCH1-related gene sets and elevated expression of the active intracytoplasmic NOTCH1. Activation of the NOTCH1 signaling and down-regulation of surface CD20 in SF3B1-mutated CLL cells correlate with over-expression of an alternatively spliced form of DVL2, a component of the Wnt pathway and negative regulator of the NOTCH1 pathway. These findings are confirmed by separately analyzing the CD20-dim and CD20-bright cell fractions from SF3B1-mutated cases as well as by DVL2 knock-out experiments in CLL-like cell models. Altogether, the clinical and biological features that characterize NOTCH1-mutated CLL may also be recapitulated in SF3B1-mutated CLL, contributing to explain the poor prognosis of this CLL subset and providing the rationale for expanding novel agents-based therapies to SF3B1-mutated CLL

    Cytofluorimetric and immunohistochemical comparison for detecting bone marrow infiltration in non-Hodgkin lymphomas: a study of 354 patients

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    Morphological and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of bone marrow biopsies (BMB) is routinely performed during staging of patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Aiming to evaluate the possible diagnostic value of flow cytometry (FC) on bone marrow aspirates (BMA), as compared with BMB, we retrospectively reviewed BMA specimen of 354 NHL. In 305 cases (86.1 %), there was a concordance between the two investigations. A discordance was detected in 49 cases (14 %): in 33 of these (9.3 % of total population), FC analysis of BMA was positive, whereas BMB, supported by IHC, was negative; in 16 (4.5 % of total population), FC did not detected lymphoid infiltration, while BMB was positive. Although the clinical implications of such an observation remain unclear, we think our results may be useful in the context of current staging procedures, also opening a possible future perspective in the setting of minimal measurable disease in these patients

    Atypical mature T-cell neoplasms: The relevance of the role of flow cytometry

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    Lymphoproliferative disorders are a heterogeneous group of malignant clonal proliferations of lymphocytes whose diagnosis remains challenging, despite diagnostic criteria are now well established, due to their heterogeneity in clinical presentation and immunophenotypic profile. Lymphoid T-cell disorders are more rarely seen than B-cell entities and more difficult to diagnose for the absence of a specific immunophenotypic signature. Flow cytometry is a useful tool in diagnosing T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders since it is not only able to better characterize T-cell neoplasms but also to resolve some very complicated cases, in particular those in which a small size population of neoplastic cells is available for the analysis. Here, we report three patients with mature T-cell neoplasms with atypical clinical and biological features in which analysis of peripheral blood and bone marrow specimens by means of multicolor flow cytometry was very useful to identify and characterize three rare T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders, such as angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma, peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified and T-cell prolym-phocytic leukemia. The aim of this case series report is not only to describe three rare cases of lymphoproliferative neoplasms but also to raise awareness that a fast, highly sensitive, and reproducible procedure, such as flow cytometry immunophenotyping, can have a determinant diagnostic role in these patients

    CD49d promotes disease progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: new insights from CD49d bimodal expression

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    CD49d is a remarkable prognostic biomarker of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The extensively validated 30% of positive CLL cells cut-off value is able to separate CLL patients into two subgroups with different prognosis, but it does not consider the pattern of CD49d expression. In the present study, we analysed a cohort of 1,630 CLL samples and identified the presence of ~20% of CLL cases (n=313) characterized by a bimodal expression of CD49d, i.e. concomitant presence of a CD49dpos sub-population and a CD49dneg sub-population. At variance with the highly stable CD49d expression observed in CLL patients with a homogeneous pattern of CD49d expression, CD49d bimodal CLL showed a higher level of variability in sequential samples, and an increase in the CD49dpos sub-population over time after therapy. The CD49dpos sub-population from CD49d bimodal CLL displayed higher levels of proliferation compared to the CD49dneg cells, was more highly represented in the bone marrow compared to peripheral blood (PB), and in PB CLL subsets expressing the CXCR4dim/CD5bright phenotype, known to be enriched in proliferative cells. From a clinical standpoint, CLL patients with CD49d bimodal expression, regardless of whether the CD49dpos sub-population exceeded or not the 30% cut-off, experienced a clinical behavior similar to CD49dpos CLL, both in the chemo-immunotherapy (n=1,522) and in the ibrutinib (n=158) settings. Altogether, these results suggest that CD49d can drive disease progression in CLL, and that the pattern of CD49d expression should be also considered to improve the prognostic impact of this biomarker in CLL
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