20 research outputs found

    Medical treatment of early stage and rare histological variants of epithelial ovarian cancer

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    Epithelial ovarian cancer is often considered a single pathological entity, but increasing evidence suggests that it is rather a group of different neoplasms, each with unique pathological characteristics, molecular features, and clinical behaviours. This heterogeneity accounts for the different sensitivity to antineoplastic drugs and makes the treatment of ovarian tumours a challenge. For early-stage disease, as well as for heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent ovarian cancer, the benefit of chemotherapy remains uncertain. Clear-cell, mucinous, low-grade serous, and endometrioid carcinomas show different molecular characteristics, which require different therapeutic approaches. In the era of personalised cancer medicine, understanding the pathogenesis and the genetic background of each subtype of epithelial ovarian tumour may lead to a tailored therapy, maximising the benefits of specific treatments and possibly reducing the side effects. Furthermore, personal factors, such as the patient’s performance status, should be taken into account in the management of ovarian cancer, with the aim of safeguarding the patients’ quality of life

    Vaginal atrophy in breast cancer survivors: attitude and approaches among oncologists

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    Abstract Background Vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA) is a relevant problem for breast cancer survivors (BCSs), in particular for those who receive aromatase inhibitors (AIs). We conducted a survey, to assess the attitude of oncologists toward the diagnosis and treatment of VVA in BCSs. Materials and Methods In 2015, 120 computer-assisted Web interviews were performed among breast oncologists. Results According to oncologists' perceptions, 60% of postmenopausal BCSs and 39.4% of premenopausal BCSs will suffer from VVA. Despite that none of the physicians considered VVA as a transient event or a secondary problem in BCSs, only half of the oncologists (48%) directly illustrated VVA to the patients as a possible consequence. Forty-one percent of the oncologists refer BCSs to gynaecologist to define VVA treatment, whereas 35.1% manages it alone. Nonhormonal treatments are preferred by most oncologists (71%). The main reason not to prescribe vaginal estrogen therapy in BCSs is the fear of increased cancer recurrence, the possible interference with tamoxifen, or AIs and the fear of medical litigation. Conclusion VVA is a relevant problem for BCSs. Great effort should be done to correctly inform health care providers about VVA problems and on the different possible available treatments

    Axillary dissection in patients with preoperative positive nodal cytology: Genuine need or overtreatment?

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    Recent studies demonstrated the possibility to avoid axillary dissection (ALND) in selected patients with one or two metastatic nodes. Otherwise, patients with positive nodal ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology (US-FNAC) currently undergo ALDN. The aim of this study is to quantify the nodal burden in patients with positive US-FNAC treated with ALND and to evaluate if clinical or pathological characteristics associated with low nodal involvement can be identified. This is a multicentric retrospective study involving 297 patients who underwent ALND because of a positive preoperative US-FNAC. A total of 157 patients showed bulky axillary lymph nodes at diagnosis, and 70% of them had three or more metastatic nodes. One hundred and forty patients had a clinically negative axilla and in 50% of them, 4 or more metastatic nodes were found with axillary dissection. Overall, the median number of metastatic nodes was 5. Favorable pathological characteristics of tumors were found in patients with only one or two metastatic nodes: smaller primary tumor, a lower proportion of grade 3, invasive lobular carcinomas and a higher proportion of low-Ki67 tumors. In the group of patients with clinically negative axilla and potentially meeting ACOSOG Z0011 criteria, 22 (31%) showed less than three metastatic axillary nodes. A preoperative positive axillary FNAC is associated with a metastatic nodal burden significantly higher than in patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Nevertheless, about 30% of patients with cN0 axilla, positive axillary FNAC performed because of suspicious nodes on imaging, T1-2 primary tumor and breast-conserving surgery showed less than three metastatic axillary nodes, thus meeting ACOSOG Z0011 trial's criteria and therefore would be eligible for skipping ALND according to current guidelines

    Types of Corruption in Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs) in Ibadan, Nigeria

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    Corruption is a phenomenon that manifests in various types and forms especially among operators of Small and Micro Enterprises (SMEs). Many actions of the operators which constitute corrupt practices often tend to be overlooked in spite of their grave consequences for the success SMEs in Nigeria. The fight against corruption in Nigeria is more concentrated in the formal sector. This study was, therefore, designed to investigate various forms in which corrupt practices are carried out among Small and Micro Enterprises in Ibadan, Nigeria. Business owners, their employees, apprentices and consumers constituted the study population. Primary data were collected using questionnaire administered on 200 business owners, 150 employees and 150 apprentices randomly chosen in five business districts in Ibadan; and the conduct of 10 in-depth interviews with purposively selected participants. Quantitative data were analysed at uni-variate level using simple percentages and frequencies while qualitative data were content analysed. Findings from the study revealed that corrupt practices were rampant among actors in SMEs and the common types of corrupt practices included stealing (60%), deception of customers (78.4%), tax evasion (62%), sale of fake products (76%), sale of expired products (65.2%), tampering with measurement scales (69.6%), bribery (82.4%), and poor service delivery (73%). The study concludes that the level of corruption in SMEs calls for concern and government should extend the fight against corruption to the informal sector in Nigeria