255 research outputs found

    Genetic and social influences on starting to smoke: a study of Dutch adolescent twins and their parents

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    In a study of 1600 Dutch adolescent twin pairs we found that 59% of the inter‐individual variation in smoking behaviour could be attributed to shared environmental influences and 31% to genetic factors. The magnitude of the genetic and environmental effects did not differ between boys and girls. However, environmental effects shared by male twins and environmental effects shared by female twins were imperfectly correlated in twins from opposite‐sex pairs, indicating that different environmental factors influence smoking in adolescent boys and girls. In the parents of these twins, the correlation between husband and wife for‘currently smoking’(r = 0.43) was larger than for‘ever smoked’(r = 0.18). There was no evidence that smoking of parents (at present or in the past) encouraged smoking in their offspring. Resemblance between parents and offspring was significant but rather low and could be accounted for completely by their genetic relatedness. Moreover, the association between‘currently smoking’in the parents and smoking behaviour in their children was not larger than the association between‘ever smoking’in parents and smoking in their children. Copyright © 1994, Wiley Blackwell. All rights reserve

    Construction of 3D wormhole supported by phantom energy

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    In this article, we have found a series solution of 3D Einstein equations describing a wormhole for an inhomogeneous distribution of phantom energy. Here, we assume equation of state is linear but highly anistropic.Comment: 9 papge, 4 figures. Accepted for publication in Physica Script

    A genetic analysis of coffee consumption in a sample of Dutch twins

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    Caffeine is by far the most commonly used psycho-active substance. Caffeine is consumed regularly as an ingredient of coffee. Coffee consumption and coffee preference was explored in a sample of 4,495 twins (including 1,231 pairs) registered with the Netherlands Twin Registry. Twin resemblance was assessed by tetrachoric correlations and the influence of both genetic and environmental factors was explored with model fitting analysis in MX. Results showed moderate genetic influences (39%) on coffee consumption. The remaining variance was explained by shared environmental factors (21%) and unique environmental factors (40%). The variance in coffee preference (defined as the proportion of coffee consumption relative to the consumption of coffee and tea in total) was explained by genetic factors (62%) and unique environmental factors (38%)

    Age-Related Attenuation of Dominant Hand Superiority

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    The decline of motor performance of the human hand-arm system with age is well-documented. While dominant hand performance is superior to that of the non-dominant hand in young individuals, little is known of possible age-related changes in hand dominance. We investigated age-related alterations of hand dominance in 20 to 90 year old subjects. All subjects were unambiguously right-handed according to the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. In Experiment 1, motor performance for aiming, postural tremor, precision of arm-hand movement, speed of arm-hand movement, and wrist-finger speed tasks were tested. In Experiment 2, accelerometer-sensors were used to obtain objective records of hand use in everyday activities

    Genetics of Type A Behavior in Two European Countries: Evidence for Sibling Interaction

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    Young male twins in The Netherlands and England completed the Jenkins Activity Survey (Dutch and English versions, respectively), a measure of Type A behavior. Separate model fitting analysis revealed a similar pattern of variance estimates and associated goodness of fit across the two countries. The data were then analyzed concurrently, with a scalar parameter included to account for differences in variance due to the disparity of the measurement scales. A model including additive genetic and individual environmental effects gave a good explanation to the data. The heritability estimate was 0.28. Models of social interaction and dominance explained the data even better, the former being preferred. The twins' parents were included in the analysis to examine population variation for Type A behavior intergenerationally. There was evidence for individual environmental experiences having a greater influence on Type A behavior in the older generation. © 1991 Plenum Publishing Corporation

    NINJ2 SNP may affect the onset age of first-ever ischemic stroke without increasing silent cerebrovascular lesions

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>To investigate if single nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 12p13 and within 11 kb of the gene <it>NINJ2 </it>would be associated with earlier-onset (vs. late-onset) first-ever ischemic stroke and increase silent cerebrovascular lesions prior to the manifestation of the stroke.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We prospectively enrolled 164 patients (67.6 ± 12.9 years, 92 men) admitted with first-ever ischemic strokes. All patients underwent genotyping of rs11833579 and rs12425791 as well as systemic investigations including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and other vascular workup. Stroke-related MR lesions were registered on a brain-template-set using a custom-built software package 'Image_QNA': high-signal-intensity ischemic lesions on diffusion, T2-weighted, or fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR images, and low signal intensity hemorrhagic lesions on gradient-echo MR images.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The rs11833579 A/A or G/A genotype was independently associated with the first-ever ischemic stroke before the age 59 vs. 59 or over, after adjusting for cardiovascular risk factors and prior medication of antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs, increasing the risk by about 2.5 fold. In the quantitative MR lesion maps from age-sex matched subgroups (n = 124 or 126), there was no difference between the patients with the rs11833579 A/A or G/A genotype and those with the G/G genotype. Unexpectedly, the extent of leukoaraiosis on FLAIR-MR images tended to be smaller in the corona radiata and centrum semiovale of the patients with the rs12425791 A/A or G/A genotype than in those with the G/G genotype (<it>P </it>= 0.052). Neither the rs11833579 nor the rs12425791 genotype significantly affected initial stroke severity; however the latter was associated with relatively low modified Rankin scale scores at 1 year after stroke.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The rs11833579 A/A or G/A genotype may bring forward the onset age of first-ever ischemic stroke without increasing silent cerebrovascular lesions prior to the stroke. Further studies are required to confirm our preliminary findings.</p

    Complexity in the genetic architecture of leukoaraiosis in hypertensive sibships from the GENOA Study

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Subcortical white matter hyperintensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, referred to as leukoaraiosis, is associated with increased risk of stroke and dementia. Hypertension may contribute to leukoaraiosis by accelerating the process of arteriosclerosis involving penetrating small arteries and arterioles in the brain. Leukoaraiosis volume is highly heritable but shows significant inter-individual variability that is not predicted well by any clinical covariates (except for age) or by single SNPs.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>As part of the Genetics of Microangiopathic Brain Injury (GMBI) Study, 777 individuals (74% hypertensive) underwent brain MRI and were genotyped for 1649 SNPs from genes known or hypothesized to be involved in arteriosclerosis and related pathways. We examined SNP main effects, epistatic (gene-gene) interactions, and context-dependent (gene-environment) interactions between these SNPs and covariates (including conventional and novel risk factors for arteriosclerosis) for association with leukoaraiosis volume. Three methods were used to reduce the chance of false positive associations: 1) false discovery rate (FDR) adjustment for multiple testing, 2) an internal replication design, and 3) a ten-iteration four-fold cross-validation scheme.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Four SNP main effects (in <it>F3</it>, <it>KITLG</it>, <it>CAPN10</it>, and <it>MMP2</it>), 12 SNP-covariate interactions (including interactions between <it>KITLG </it>and homocysteine, and between <it>TGFB3 </it>and both physical activity and C-reactive protein), and 173 SNP-SNP interactions were significant, replicated, and cross-validated. While a model containing the top single SNPs with main effects predicted only 3.72% of variation in leukoaraiosis in independent test samples, a multiple variable model that included the four most highly predictive SNP-SNP and SNP-covariate interactions predicted 11.83%.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>These results indicate that the genetic architecture of leukoaraiosis is complex, yet predictive, when the contributions of SNP main effects are considered in combination with effects of SNP interactions with other genes and covariates.</p

    SLC2A10 genetic polymorphism predicts development of peripheral arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. SLC2A10 and PAD in type 2 diabetes

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Recent data indicate that loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT10 (<it>SLC2A10</it>) causes arterial tortuosity syndrome via upregulation of the TGF-β pathway in the arterial wall, a mechanism possibly causing vascular changes in diabetes.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>We genotyped 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms and one microsatellite spanning 34 kb across the <it>SLC2A10 </it>gene in a prospective cohort of 372 diabetic patients. Their association with the development of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in type 2 diabetic patients was analyzed.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>At baseline, several common SNPs of <it>SLC2A10 </it>gene were associated with PAD in type 2 diabetic patients. A common haplotype was associated with higher risk of PAD in type 2 diabetic patients (haplotype frequency: 6.3%, <it>P </it>= 0.03; odds ratio [OR]: 14.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3- 160.7) at baseline. Over an average follow-up period of 5.7 years, carriers with the risk-conferring haplotype were more likely to develop PAD (<it>P </it>= 0.007; hazard ratio: 6.78; 95% CI: 1.66- 27.6) than were non-carriers. These associations remained significant after adjustment for other risk factors of PAD.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>Our data demonstrate that genetic polymorphism of the <it>SLC2A10 </it>gene is an independent risk factor for PAD in type 2 diabetes.</p