610 research outputs found

    Is the Sun Embedded in a Typical Interstellar Cloud?

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    The physical properties and kinematics of the partially ionized interstellar material near the Sun are typical of warm diffuse clouds in the solar vicinity. The interstellar magnetic field at the heliosphere and the kinematics of nearby clouds are naturally explained in terms of the S1 superbubble shell. The interstellar radiation field at the Sun appears to be harder than the field ionizing ambient diffuse gas, which may be a consequence of the low opacity of the tiny cloud surrounding the heliosphere. The spatial context of the Local Bubble is consistent with our location in the Orion spur.Comment: "From the Outer Heliosphere to the Local Bubble", held at International Space Sciences Institute, October 200

    Dynamics in online social networks

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    An increasing number of today's social interactions occurs using online social media as communication channels. Some online social networks have become extremely popular in the last decade. They differ among themselves in the character of the service they provide to online users. For instance, Facebook can be seen mainly as a platform for keeping in touch with close friends and relatives, Twitter is used to propagate and receive news, LinkedIn facilitates the maintenance of professional contacts, Flickr gathers amateurs and professionals of photography, etc. Albeit different, all these online platforms share an ingredient that pervades all their applications. There exists an underlying social network that allows their users to keep in touch with each other and helps to engage them in common activities or interactions leading to a better fulfillment of the service's purposes. This is the reason why these platforms share a good number of functionalities, e.g., personal communication channels, broadcasted status updates, easy one-step information sharing, news feeds exposing broadcasted content, etc. As a result, online social networks are an interesting field to study an online social behavior that seems to be generic among the different online services. Since at the bottom of these services lays a network of declared relations and the basic interactions in these platforms tend to be pairwise, a natural methodology for studying these systems is provided by network science. In this chapter we describe some of the results of research studies on the structure, dynamics and social activity in online social networks. We present them in the interdisciplinary context of network science, sociological studies and computer science.Comment: 17 pages, 4 figures, book chapte

    Kinetic modeling of H-mode pedestal with effects from anomalous transport and MHD stability

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    Scaling of the H-mode pedestal in tokamak plasmas with type I ELMs and dependence of the pedestal properties and the resulting divertor head load width with the plasma elongation and plasma current are investigated using the kinetic neoclassical XGC0 code for DIII-D and Alcator C-Mod tokamaks. The simulations in this study use realistic diverted geometry and are self-consistent with the inclusion of kinetic neoclassical physics, theory-based anomalous transport models with the E×B flow shearing effects, as well as an MHD ELM triggering criterion. Scalings for the pedestal width and height are developed as a function of the scanned plasma parameters. The nonlinear interplay between anomalous and neoclassical effects motivates the development of a self-consistent simulation model that includes neoclassical and anomalous effects simultaneously. It is demonstrated that the divertor heat load width depend on the plasma currents. In the development of this dependence, effects of neutral collisions and anomalous transport are taken into account. Changes in the neoclassical divertor heat load fluxes associated with the introduction of the neutral collision and anomalous transport effects are described.За допомогою кінетичного неокласичного коду XGC0 для розрядів в токамаках DIII-D і Alcator C-Mod досліджено скейлінг п’єдесталу в плазмі, що перебуває в режимі поліпшеного утримання, з прикордонними локалізованими модами (ПЛМ) першого типу, властивості п’єдесталу і потоку тепла на дивертор в залежності від витягнутості плазми та струму плазми. У розрахунках використовуються: реалістична геометрія дивертора, кінетична модель для неокласичних ефектів, модель аномального транспорту, яка враховує ефекти шира (ExB)-потоків, і умови збудження ПЛМ-нестійкостей. У результаті розрахунків отримані скейлінгі для ширини і висоти п’єдесталу як функції параметрів плазми. Нелінійна взаємодія неокласичних ефектів і ефектів, пов'язаних з аномальним транспортом, є мотивацією для розробки самоузгодженої чисельної моделі, яка одночасно включає ефекти аномального і неокласичного транспорту. Показано, що потоки тепла на дивертор залежать від плазмових струмів. Також представлено результати дослідження залежності напівширини профілів тепла на дивертор від ефектів, пов'язаних з аномальним транспортом і зіткненнями з нейтральними частинками.С помощью кинетического неоклассического кода XGC0 для разрядов в токамаках DIII-D и Alcator C-Mod исследованы скэйлинг пьедестала в плазме, находящейся в режиме улучшенного удержания, с приграничными локализованными модами (ПЛМ) первого типа, и зависимость свойств пьедестала и потока тепла на дивертор от вытянутости плазмы и тока плазмы. В расчетах используются: реалистичная геометрия дивертора, кинетическая модель для неоклассических эффектов, модель аномального транспорта, которая учитывает эффекты шира (ExB)-потоков, и условия возбуждения ПЛМ-неустойчивостей. В результате расчетов получены скэйлинги для ширины и высоты пьедестала как функции параметров плазмы. Нелинейное взаимодействие неоклассических эффектов и эффектов, связанных с аномальным транспортом, является мотивацией разработки самосогласованной численной модели, которая одновременно включает эффекты аномального и неоклассического транспорта. Показано, что потоки тепла на дивертор зависят от плазменных токов. Также представлены результаты исследования зависимости полуширины профилей тепла на дивертор от эффектов, связанных с аномальным транспортом и столкновениями с нейтральными частицами

    Measurement of the B-Meson Inclusive Semileptonic Branching Fraction and Electron-Energy Moments

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    We report a new measurement of the B-meson semileptonic decay momentum spectrum that has been made with a sample of 9.4/fb of electron-positron annihilation data collected with the CLEO II detector at the Y(4S) resonance. Electrons from primary semileptonic decays and secondary charm decays were separated by using charge and angular correlations in Y(4S) events with a high-momentum lepton and an additional electron. We determined the semileptonic branching fraction to be (10.91 +- 0.09 +- 0.24)% from the normalization of the electron-energy spectrum. We also measured the moments of the electron energy spectrum with minimum energies from 0.6 GeV to 1.5 GeV.Comment: 36 pages postscript, als available through http://w4.lns.cornell.edu/public/CLNS/, Submitted to PRD (back-to-back with preceding preprint hep-ex/0403052

    Second Generation Leptoquark Search in p\bar{p} Collisions at s\sqrt{s} = 1.8 TeV

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    We report on a search for second generation leptoquarks with the D\O\ detector at the Fermilab Tevatron ppˉp\bar{p} collider at s\sqrt{s} = 1.8 TeV. This search is based on 12.7 pb1^{-1} of data. Second generation leptoquarks are assumed to be produced in pairs and to decay into a muon and quark with branching ratio β\beta or to neutrino and quark with branching ratio (1β)(1-\beta). We obtain cross section times branching ratio limits as a function of leptoquark mass and set a lower limit on the leptoquark mass of 111 GeV/c2^{2} for β=1\beta = 1 and 89 GeV/c2^{2} for β=0.5\beta = 0.5 at the 95%\ confidence level.Comment: 18 pages, FERMILAB-PUB-95/185-

    Evidence of Color Coherence Effects in W+jets Events from ppbar Collisions at sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV

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    We report the results of a study of color coherence effects in ppbar collisions based on data collected by the D0 detector during the 1994-1995 run of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, at a center of mass energy sqrt(s) = 1.8 TeV. Initial-to-final state color interference effects are studied by examining particle distribution patterns in events with a W boson and at least one jet. The data are compared to Monte Carlo simulations with different color coherence implementations and to an analytic modified-leading-logarithm perturbative calculation based on the local parton-hadron duality hypothesis.Comment: 13 pages, 6 figures. Submitted to Physics Letters
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