59 research outputs found

    Pan-African Genetic Structure in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer): Investigating Intraspecific Divergence

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    The African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) exhibits extreme morphological variability, which has led to controversies about the validity and taxonomic status of the various recognized subspecies. The present study aims to clarify these by inferring the pan-African spatial distribution of genetic diversity, using a comprehensive set of mitochondrial D-loop sequences from across the entire range of the species. All analyses converged on the existence of two distinct lineages, corresponding to a group encompassing West and Central African populations and a group encompassing East and Southern African populations. The former is currently assigned to two to three subspecies (S. c. nanus, S. c. brachyceros, S. c. aequinoctialis) and the latter to a separate subspecies (S. c. caffer). Forty-two per cent of the total amount of genetic diversity is explained by the between-lineage component, with one to seventeen female migrants per generation inferred as consistent with the isolation-with-migration model. The two lineages diverged between 145 000 to 449 000 years ago, with strong indications for a population expansion in both lineages, as revealed by coalescent-based analyses, summary statistics and a star-like topology of the haplotype network for the S. c. caffer lineage. A Bayesian analysis identified the most probable historical migration routes, with the Cape buffalo undertaking successive colonization events from Eastern toward Southern Africa. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that, in the West-Central African lineage, the forest ecophenotype may be a derived form of the savanna ecophenotype and not vice versa, as has previously been proposed. The African buffalo most likely expanded and diverged in the late to middle Pleistocene from an ancestral population located around the current-day Central African Republic, adapting morphologically to colonize new habitats, hence developing the variety of ecophenotypes observed today

    Molecular Mining of Alleles in Water Buffalo Bubalus bubalis and Characterization of the TSPY1 and COL6A1 Genes

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    discovered in the process. gene in water buffalo, which localized to the Y chromosome.The MASA approach enabled us to identify several genes, including two of clinical significance, without screening an entire cDNA library. Genes identified with TGG repeats are not part of a specific family of proteins and instead are distributed randomly throughout the genome. Genes showing elevated expression in the testes and spermatozoa may prove to be potential candidates for in-depth characterization. Furthermore, their possible involvement in fertility or lack thereof would augment animal biotechnology

    RsaI repetitive DNA in Buffalo Bubalus bubalis representing retrotransposons, conserved in bovids, are part of the functional genes

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Repetitive sequences are the major components of the eukaryotic genomes. Association of these repeats with transcribing sequences and their regulation in buffalo <it>Bubalus bubalis </it>has remained largely unresolved.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We cloned and sequenced <it>RsaI </it>repeat fragments pDp1, pDp2, pDp3, pDp4 of 1331, 651, 603 and 339 base pairs, respectively from the buffalo, <it>Bubalus bubalis</it>. Upon characterization, these fragments were found to represent retrotransposons and part of some functional genes. The resultant clones showed cross hybridization only with buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep genomic DNA. Real Time PCR, detected ~2 × 10<sup>4 </sup>copies of pDp1, ~ 3000 copies of pDp2 and pDp3 and ~ 1000 of pDp4 in buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep genomes, respectively. <it>RsaI </it>repeats are transcriptionally active in somatic tissues and spermatozoa. Accordingly, pDp1 showed maximum expression in lung, pDp2 and pDp3 both in Kidney, and pDp4 in ovary. Fluorescence <it>in situ </it>hybridization showed repeats to be distributed all across the chromosomes.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>The data suggest that <it>RsaI </it>repeats have been incorporated into the exonic regions of various transcribing genes, possibly contributing towards the architecture and evolution of the buffalo and related genomes. Prospects of our present work in the context of comparative and functional genomics are highlighted.</p

    An initial comparative map of copy number variations in the goat (Capra hircus) genome

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>The goat (<it>Capra hircus</it>) represents one of the most important farm animal species. It is reared in all continents with an estimated world population of about 800 million of animals. Despite its importance, studies on the goat genome are still in their infancy compared to those in other farm animal species. Comparative mapping between cattle and goat showed only a few rearrangements in agreement with the similarity of chromosome banding. We carried out a cross species cattle-goat array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment in order to identify copy number variations (CNVs) in the goat genome analysing animals of different breeds (Saanen, Camosciata delle Alpi, Girgentana, and Murciano-Granadina) using a tiling oligonucleotide array with ~385,000 probes designed on the bovine genome.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We identified a total of 161 CNVs (an average of 17.9 CNVs per goat), with the largest number in the Saanen breed and the lowest in the Camosciata delle Alpi goat. By aggregating overlapping CNVs identified in different animals we determined CNV regions (CNVRs): on the whole, we identified 127 CNVRs covering about 11.47 Mb of the virtual goat genome referred to the bovine genome (0.435% of the latter genome). These 127 CNVRs included 86 loss and 41 gain and ranged from about 24 kb to about 1.07 Mb with a mean and median equal to 90,292 bp and 49,530 bp, respectively. To evaluate whether the identified goat CNVRs overlap with those reported in the cattle genome, we compared our results with those obtained in four independent cattle experiments. Overlapping between goat and cattle CNVRs was highly significant (P < 0.0001) suggesting that several chromosome regions might contain recurrent interspecies CNVRs. Genes with environmental functions were over-represented in goat CNVRs as reported in other mammals.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>We describe a first map of goat CNVRs. This provides information on a comparative basis with the cattle genome by identifying putative recurrent interspecies CNVs between these two ruminant species. Several goat CNVs affect genes with important biological functions. Further studies are needed to evaluate the functional relevance of these CNVs and their effects on behavior, production, and disease resistance traits in goats.</p

    A paradox revealed: karyotype evolution in the four-horned antelope occurs by tandem fusion (Mammalia, Bovidae, Tetracerus quadricornis)

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    The four-horned antelope, Tetracerus quadricornis, is a karyotypic novelty in Bovidae since chromosomal evolution in this species is driven by tandem fusions in contradiction to the overwhelming influence of Robertsonian fusions in other species within the family. Using a combination of differential staining and molecular cytogenetic techniques, we provide the first description of the species' karyotype, draw phylogenetic inferences from the cytogenetic data and discuss possible mechanisms underlying the formation of the tandem fusions in this species. We show (a) that pairs 1-6 of Tetracerus correspond to a combination of Bos taurus orthologous chromosomes that are tandemly fused head to tail, (b) the presence of interstitial centromeric satellite DNA at the junctions of orthologous blocks defined by the crossspecies painting data and (c) that in some instances, residual telomeric sequences persist at these sites. We conclude that the attendant result of each fusion is an enlarged acrocentric fusion element comprising a single functional centromere and two terminal telomeres that, collectively, led to a reduction of the 2n=58 bovid ancestral acrocentric chromosomal complement to the 2n=38 detected in the four-horned antelope.Articl

    Chromosome evolution in the subtribe Bovina (Mammalia, Bovidae): the karyotype of the Cambodian banteng (Bos javanicus birmanicus) suggests that Robertsonian translocations are related to interspecific hybridization

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    Three subspecies of banteng (Bos javanicus) have been described: B. j. javanicus in Java, B. j. lowi in Borneo, and B. j. birmanicus in Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. In this paper we provide the first description of the karyotype of the Cambodian banteng. The chromosomal complement of B. j. birmanicus differs from that of B. j. javanicus, which was previously found to be similar to that of cattle, Bos taurus (2n = 60). The Cambodian banteng karyotype has a diploid number of 2n = 56 (FN = 62) and the karyotype consists of 26 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes and two pairs of submetacentric chromosomes. Comparisons with other species of the subtribe Bovina show that the two pairs of bi-armed chromosomes resulted from two centric fusions involving the equivalent of cattle chromosomes 1 and 29, and 2 and 28, respectively. Cross-species fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with B. taurus whole chromosome paints and satellite DNA I probes was used to identify the chromosomes involved in the translocations, and their orientation. We suggest that Robertsonian translocations (1;29) and (2;28) have been fixed in the common ancestor of Cambodian banteng as a consequence of hybridization with the kouprey (Bos sauveli) during the Pleistocene epoch

    Molecular on situ hybridization analysis of sheep and goat Bac clones identifies the transcriptional orientation pf T cell receptor gamma genes on chromosome 4 in bovids

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    The T-cell receptor gamma chain combines with the T-cell receptor delta chain to form the heterodimer gamma/delta complex. In human and mouse, gamma/delta T cells amount to less than 5% of the peripheral blood T lymphocytes (‘gamma/delta low species’), whereas in chicken and artiodactyls, gamma/delta T cells amount to about half of the peripheral blood T cells (‘gamma/delta high species’). Recent studies in bovids have revealed the existence of two paralogous loci TRG1 and TRG2. TRG1 is located on 4q31, within a region of homology with human TRG locus on chromosome 7; while TRG2, localized on 4q15–22, appears to be unique to these ruminant animals. The entire TRG2 locus is composed of three recombinational units (cassette) named TRG6, TRG2 and TRG4 according to TRGC genes. All TRG cassettes lie in the same transcriptional orientation and are closely spaced. In each ‘V, J, C’ unit, Variable and Joining genes rearrange to be found together spliced to the relevant Constant in mature transcripts. Here, we report the cytological mapping of TRG2 locus on sheep 4q22 unique chromosome band and on homologous chromosome bands of cattle, goat and river buffalo. Moreover molecular characterization of 5' boundaries of sheep TRG2 locus and dual-colour FISH results allowed us to identify the physical order of the tightly linked TRG2 and HGF loci markers along the chromosome and establish the transcriptional orientation towards the centromere of Variable (V), Joining (J) and Constant (C) TRG2 gene segments on 4q22 band
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