713 research outputs found

    Macroinvertebrates responses based on chemical and physical variables in urban streams

    Get PDF
    The Land uses and occupations around small watersheds generate negative impacts such as deterioration of water quality, environmental simplification, reduced availability of habitats for species, and loss of biodiversity. Benthic macroinvertebrates are an important aquatic community and are widely used in environmental monitoring actions in aquatic ecosystems, including urban streams, which are still little studied in Brazil. In our study, an urban headwater basin (Monjolinho River Basin) was studied on the benthic community structure, together with the physical and chemical variables of the water, as an environmental monitoring tool calculated by RHDEP, TSI, BMWP indexes and abundance-biomass curves. The results showed a gradient of environmental quality, where the best environments are a consequence of preserving the vegetation cover. These environments (Espraiado and Canchim) present groups sensitive to environmental degradation (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera), greater diversity and a better structure in the respective benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages. Among the streams sampled, one is very clean, four are moderately polluted, and one is severely polluted. Thus, considering that these streams’ waters are essential for public supply, actions to clean up and recover degraded environments are urgent and a priority

    Efeito de níveis de melão em substituição ao milho moído sobre o desempenho, o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes em ovinos Morada Nova.

    Get PDF
    Avaliaram-se o desempenho, o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente de componentes nutritivos em 32 ovinos Morada Nova em confinamento, 20 machos não-castrados e 12 fêmeas, recebendo dietas contendo 0, 30, 60 e 100% de melão em substituição ao milho moído. Os animais tinham em média 6 meses de idade, peso médio inicial de 15 kg e foram abatidos aos 25 kg. Utilizou-se delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições. O consumo de MS apresentou tendência quadrática para ambos os sexos, variando de 769 a 837 g para os machos e de 722 g a 646 g para as fêmeas. Os consumos de matéria orgânica (MO), proteína bruta (PB), extrato etéreo (EE), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT), carboidratos totais (CT) e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF) apresentaram comportamento quadrático, refletindo o mesmo comportamento da ingestão da MS. A digestibilidade aparente da MS apresentou tendência linear decrescente. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MO, PB, EE, FDN e CT apresentaram comportamento linear crescente com a adição de melão em substituição ao milho moído. O ganho de peso diário com o aumento do nível de melão na dieta foi maior nos machos. A conversão e eficiência alimentar não foram influenciadas pelo aumento do nível de melão na dieta. Os dias de confinamento variaram de 79 a 90 dias. A substituição na dieta do milho moído por melão possibilitou obter desempenho satisfatório em ovinos Morada Nova em confinamento. O nível de 60% de substituição é o que permite melhor retorno financeiro, entretanto, em níveis superiores a 30%, aumentam os dias de confinamento, elevando a idade ao abate

    Multivariate characterization of the adaptive profile in Brazilian and Italian goat population

    Get PDF
    Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize the adaptive profile and identify variables with great discriminatory power of the Brazilian Azul goat population and Italian Garfagnina population, through the use of principal component and canonical discriminant analysis. A total of 110 Garfagnina milking females (60 in winter and 50 in summer) and 80 Brazilian Azul (40 in winter and 40 in summer) were considered. Air temperature (°C), black globe temperature (BGT) and relative humidity (%) were measured with the aid of an automatic weather station. Some physiological parameters (rectal temperature – RT, respiratory rate – RR, skin temperature – ST and heart rate – HR), some anatomical parameters (hair diameter – HD and hair length – HL), some hematological parameters (erythrocyte – RBCs, packed cell volume – PCV and mean corpuscular volume – MCV), some blood biochemical parameters (glucose – GLI, cholesterol – COL, triglycerides – TRI, creatinine – CRE, urea – URE, total protein – PRT, albumin – ALB, globulin – GLO, albumin and globulin ratio – A/G, gamma – glutamyl transferase – GGT and aspartate aminotransferase – AST) and some stressed hormones (thyroxine – T4, triiodothyronine – T3 and cortisol – COR) were measured. The variables with greater discriminant power were T3, ST, COR, T4, GGT, HD, GLO, HL and PCV to Garfagnina population and PRT, MCV, PCV, ALB, T4, ST, HL, RBCs, TRI and GGT in the Azul Brazilian population. Classification of the animals was more accurate when considering morphological, physiological, hematological, biochemical and hormonal variables jointly

    Características morfológicas e volumétricas do estômago de caprinos submetidos a diferentes períodos de aleitamento

    Get PDF
    The experiment was carried out at the Campus IV of the UFPB aiming at evaluating the morphological and volumetrics features of the stomach of goats. To study the effects of different periods of milk feeding, 42 alpine crossbred (21 males an females) were used and distributed in three treatments: T1-weaning at 56 days old; T2-weaning at 70 and T3-weaning at 84 days old. The liquid supplied to 35 days old was milk goat's at a sucking in the afternoon. The animals (males) to were killed evaluate the ruminal development and papillae in accordance to periods (183 days age). The mean weight to the respective treatments at the 182 days old were: T1= 19.3b, T2= 20.3ab e T3= 21.4ª kg. It was observed in the forestomach evaluation a greater ruminal development in the 56 days weaned animal who had papillee thicker indicating an the epithelium maturation.O experimento foi realizado no Campus IV da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Bananeiras - PB com o objetivo de avaliar as características morfológicas e volumétricas do estômago de caprinos submetidos a diferentes períodos de aleitamento. Foram utilizados 42 caprinos mestiços de raça Alpina, sendo 21 fêmeas e 21 machos inteiros, distribuídos em três tratamentos com 14 animais: T1- desmame aos 56, T2- desmame aos 70 e T3- desmame aos 84 dias de idade. A dieta líquida fornecida até 35 dias de idade foi 1 litro de leite de cabra, dividido em duas mamadas e, após este período, passou a ser fornecida a mesma quantidade em uma mamada, à tarde. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualisado com 7 repetições, em esquema fatorial 3x2, com os fatores época de desmame e sexo (macho e fêmea). As médias de pesos para os respectivos tratamentos aos 182 dias de idade foram: T1= 19,3b, T2= 20,3ab e T3= 21,4ª kg. Na avaliação dos pré-estômagos verificou-se um maior desenvolvimento do rúmen para os animais desmamados aos 56 dias, com papilas mais espessas, denotando o epitélio mais amadurecido

    Efecto de diferentes niveles de consumo de pasto elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum var. Cameroon) durante la recría de caprinos

    Get PDF
    The intake of the ration (CR), dry matter (CMS), metabolizable energy (CEM), ether extract (CEE), crude protein (CPB), neutral detergent fibre (CFDN), acid detergent fibre (CFDA), organic matter (CMO), and also total weight gain (GPT), diary weight gain (GPD), feed conversion (CA) and feed efficiency (EA), were determinates to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of elephant-grass hay (FCE) in complete rations. Twenty-seven goats of breed Saanen were used (15 males no castrated and 12 females) in the phase of growing phase, with 118 days of age and medium alive weight of 15.35 kg, fed with diets containing 30, 45 and 60 % of inclusion of elephant-grass hay, distributed in entirely randomized design in factorial scheme 3×2 (three treatments and two sexes), being five males and four females for treatment. For CEM and CEE, there was a decreasing lineal effect with the increase in the levels of inclusion of FCE. Though, for CFDN and CFDA the behaviour was increase linearly. GPT presented significant effect for the effect sex (P<.01). It was verified that as the fibre levels went increasing, GPT went decreasing. The inclusion of hay of Grass-elephant in diets for goats in the growing phase, it didn't influence the intake of dry matter for the males. The level of inclusion of hay of Grass-elephant of 60 % provided a better relationship cost/benefice for the males in growing phase, while for the females the level of 45 % would be the most suitable

    Performance and ruminal and intestinal morphometry of Santa Inês sheep submitted to feed restriction and refeeding

    Get PDF
    A study was carried out to evaluate the performance and ruminal and intestinal morphology of Santa Inês sheep subjected to feed restriction followed by refeeding. A total of 40 uncastrated lambs with an approximate age of 120 ± 15 days and mean body weight (BW) of 17.04 ± 1.18 kg were randomly divided into two groups of BW (20 and 25 kg of BW), which were subjected to different levels of feed restriction (0%, 25%, and 40% of feed restriction). For performance variables, six treatments were considered (0, 25%, and 40% of feed restriction for both groups (20 and 25 kg of BW)) and five treatments for morphometric variables (ad libitum, 25% and 40% for both groups (20 and 25 kg of BW)). All animals were slaughtered with 14 weeks of experimentation. During the feed restriction phase, the dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency (FE), and average daily gain (ADG) decreased (P < 0.05) as the level of restriction increased. During the refeeding phase, lambs with 20 kg of body weight subjected to restriction presented lower (P < 0.05) DMI in the ad libitum treatment. However, lambs with 25 kg of body weight under feed restriction presented DMI, FE, and ADG similar (P > 0.05) to the group ad libitum. The final body weight of restricted lambs after refeeding (both groups 20 and 25 kg of body weight) was lower (P < 0.05) than lambs feed ad libitum. In relation to morphology, restricted lambs showed greater height ruminal papillae and larger (P < 0.05) area of ruminal absorption and intestinal absorption, especially the lambs under treatment 40% of feed restriction. The feed restriction followed by refeeding in sheep provided partial compensatory gain, in addition, caused morphological changes in the rumen and intestine that allowed greater absorption and possibly compensatory gain in periods of greater refeeding.The authors would like to thank the Federal University of Campina Grande and Federal University of Paraíba for their technical assistance. This study was supported by CNPq and CAPESinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Genome and Environment Based Prediction Models and Methods of Complex Traits Incorporating Genotype × Environment Interaction

    Get PDF
    Genomic-enabled prediction models are of paramount importance for the successful implementation of genomic selection (GS) based on breeding values. As opposed to animal breeding, plant breeding includes extensive multienvironment and multiyear field trial data. Hence, genomic-enabled prediction models should include genotype × environment (G × E) interaction, which most of the time increases the prediction performance when the response of lines are different from environment to environment. In this chapter, we describe a historical timeline since 2012 related to advances of the GS models that take into account G × E interaction. We describe theoretical and practical aspects of those GS models, including the gains in prediction performance when including G × E structures for both complex continuous and categorical scale traits. Then, we detailed and explained the main G × E genomic prediction models for complex traits measured in continuous and noncontinuous (categorical) scale. Related to G × E interaction models this review also examine the analyses of the information generated with high-throughput phenotype data (phenomic) and the joint analyses of multitrait and multienvironment field trial data that is also employed in the general assessment of multitrait G × E interaction. The inclusion of nongenomic data in increasing the accuracy and biological reliability of the G × E approach is also outlined. We show the recent advances in large-scale envirotyping (enviromics), and how the use of mechanistic computational modeling can derive the crop growth and development aspects useful for predicting phenotypes and explaining G × E

    Optimizing Genomic-Enabled Prediction in Small-Scale Maize Hybrid Breeding Programs: A Roadmap Review

    Get PDF
    The usefulness of genomic prediction (GP) for many animal and plant breeding programs has been highlighted for many studies in the last 20 years. In maize breeding programs, mostly dedicated to delivering more highly adapted and productive hybrids, this approach has been proved successful for both large- and small-scale breeding programs worldwide. Here, we present some of the strategies developed to improve the accuracy of GP in tropical maize, focusing on its use under low budget and small-scale conditions achieved for most of the hybrid breeding programs in developing countries. We highlight the most important outcomes obtained by the University of São Paulo (USP, Brazil) and how they can improve the accuracy of prediction in tropical maize hybrids. Our roadmap starts with the efforts for germplasm characterization, moving on to the practices for mating design, and the selection of the genotypes that are used to compose the training population in field phenotyping trials. Factors including population structure and the importance of non-additive effects (dominance and epistasis) controlling the desired trait are also outlined. Finally, we explain how the source of the molecular markers, environmental, and the modeling of genotype–environment interaction can affect the accuracy of GP. Results of 7 years of research in a public maize hybrid breeding program under tropical conditions are discussed, and with the great advances that have been made, we find that what is yet to come is exciting. The use of open-source software for the quality control of molecular markers, implementing GP, and envirotyping pipelines may reduce costs in an efficient computational manner. We conclude that exploring new models/tools using high-throughput phenotyping data along with large-scale envirotyping may bring more resolution and realism when predicting genotype performances. Despite the initial costs, mostly for genotyping, the GP platforms in combination with these other data sources can be a cost-effective approach for predicting the performance of maize hybrids for a large set of growing conditions

    Avaliação histológica de peles de caprinos em idades diferenciadas

    Get PDF
    Objetivando-se analisar a pele de caprinos, identificando as diferenças estruturais histológicas, utilizou-se 16 animais machos mestiços da raça Alpina, com 4 animais em cada abate a partir dos 180 dias com intervalos entre cada abate de 45 dias. Após o sacrifício foram retiradas amostras de pele das regiões dorsal, paleta, ventre, anca e lateral. Estas amostras foram fixadas em Bouin e processadas histologicamente segundo rotina de inclusão em parafina. Os cortes de 5 mm foram analisados e fotomicrografados. A pele dos caprinos, com 180 dias de vida, mostrou-se com maior espessura da camada termostática da derme, consequentemente com grande densidade de folículos e glândulas. Com o aumento da idade os feixes de fibras do colágeno se desenvolveram aumentando a espessura da camada reticular.The objective of theis research was to analyze the skin of goats, identifying the structural differences in the cell level. It was used 16 animals, males, crossbred Alpine, using 4 animals in each slaughter, at the age of 180 days and older, used intervals of 45 days between each slaughter. After flaying the animals, it was removed samples of the skin from dorsal, palette, ventral, hind and lateral regions. These samples were placed in a Bouin solution an analyzed at cellular level, according to the paraffin inclusion routine. The 5 mm cuts were photomicrographed and analyzed. The goats skin that were 180 days old shown a thicker thermostatic layer of the skin, consequently with a greater density of follicles and glands. With age the reticular layer develops leading to the sheaves of fibers of the collagen
    • …
    corecore