3,516 research outputs found

    What Do We Mean by ?Feminization of Poverty??

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    The ?feminization of poverty? is an idea that dates back to the 1970s. It was popularized at the start of the 1990s, not least in research by United Nation agencies. The concept has various meanings, some of which are not entirely consistent with its implicit notion of change. We propose a definition that is in line with many recent studies in the field: the feminization of poverty is a change in poverty levels that is biased against women or female-headed households. (...)What Do We Mean by ?Feminization of Poverty??

    What Type of Firm Forges Closer Innovation Linkages with Portuguese Universities?

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    Using large-scale survey data for firms located in Portugal, we analyze which firm characteristics are conducive to establishing contacts with universities. Although almost half of the firms surveyed stated they had established some contacts with universities in the period 2001-2003, only a few (22%) consider universities an important source of knowledge and information for their innovation activities. Our analysis indicates that the firms’ propensity to draw on each of the Portuguese universities is explained by the characteristics of the different firms and their regional and industrial patterns. An unambiguous and statistically robust finding is that proximity matters highly in firmsuniversities linkages – our estimations reveal that firms are more likely to contacts universities located nearby.

    Poverty among women in Latin America: Feminization or over-representation?

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    We propose two different concepts of feminization of poverty and analyze household survey data to verify if there is an ongoing feminization of poverty in eight Latin American countries, according to each of these concepts. We also verify if our results respond to changes in values of poverty lines and to different scenarios of intra-household inequalities, concluding that poverty may be higher among women, but there is no clear evidence of a recent and widespread feminization of poverty in the countries studied.Feminization of poverty, Gender inequalities, Poverty, Female headed households, Latin America

    Eliminating Gender Inequalities Reduces Poverty. How?

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    There are many ways in which gender inequalities are present in society. Those inequalities, like any other, are intrinsically unfair and should be fought against. In this One Pager, we show how gender inequalities in the labour market determine poverty levels. We answer the following question: which aspect of gender inequalities should be considered priority in the design of public policies that seek to reduce gender inequalities and poverty?Eliminating Gender Inequalities Reduces Poverty. How?

    What type of firm forges closer innovation linkages with Portuguese Universities?

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    Using large-scale survey data for (1538) firms located in Portugal, we analyze which firm characteristics are conducive to establishing contacts with universities. Although almost half of the firms surveyed stated they had established some contacts with universities in the period 2001-2003, only a few (21.5%) consider universities an important source of knowledge and information for their innovation activities. A more disturbing finding is that 61% of the total firms claimed they had no intentions of establishing future contacts with universities and 38% would only be moderately interested in doing so (‘if requested’). The Universities of Minho, Porto and Aveiro are the ones that cover a higher percentage of contacts from firms. Furthermore, in terms of the most demanding type of contacts (protocols, partnerships and projects), the TĂ©cnica de Lisboa (Lisbon Technical), Aveiro and Porto are the best-ranked universities. Our analysis indicates that the firms’ propensity to draw on each of the Portuguese universities is explained by the characteristics of the different firms and their regional and industrial patterns. For instance, firms that have established contacts with the Aveiro, Coimbra, Évora, Lisboa, and the Nova (Lisbon) universities tend to be relatively R&D-intensive, whereas those that contact the CatĂłlica (Porto) and Porto universities are relatively large and export-intensive. If we exclude the Algarve and Beira Interior universities, firms that contact all the other universities tend to be relatively human capital-intensive. Firms belonging to ‘R&D and Engineering services’ show a relatively high propensity to draw on universities in general, and the Aveiro, Beira Interior, CatĂłlica (Porto), Porto and TĂ©cnica de Lisboa universities, in particular. ‘Textiles and leather’ firms establish more contacts with the Beira Interior and Minho universities, thus reflecting to some extent the specialization pattern of the corresponding region. An unambiguous and statistically robust finding is that proximity matters highly in firms-universities linkages - our estimations reveal that firms are more likely to contacts universities located nearby.University, Firm, linkages

    POVERTY AMONG WOMEN IN LATIN AMERICA: FEMINIZATION OR OVER-REPRESENTATION?

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    We discuss four different concepts of feminization of poverty and analyze household survey data to verify if there is an undergoing feminization of poverty in eight Latin American countries, according to each of these concepts. We also verify if our results are sensible to changes in values of poverty lines and to different scenarios of intra- household inequalities. We conclude that women may be over-represented among the poor but there is no clear evidence of a recent and widespread feminization of poverty in the Latin American countries studied. The implication of this conclusion for policymaking in the region is that issues such as achieving the economic autonomy of women are perhaps more important to the egalitarian agenda than the feminization of poverty.

    Managing personal learning environments: the voice of the students

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    The main purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the kind of educational work to be done with higher education students (undergraduate) in order to encourage them to create and use personal learning environments (PLEs) as a strategy for learning (Attwell, 2007). Based on our current classroom work with students of the 2nd year of a degree in Education and mainly using the functionalities of the Ning system (Copyright © 2010 Ning, Inc.), as well as other tools available on the Internet, we tried to implement a strategy based not only on the presentation of content by the teacher, but also on the recognition of the importance of student’s leadership in the organisation and management of their own learning. Therefore, in addition to face-to-face lectures, we tried to extend the discussion outside the classroom walls using the different services offered by Ning, proposing to integrate the work done by students in their individual evaluation (50% of the final classification). At the end of the semester we observed evidence of a general difficulty felt by the students, particularly in terms of self-regulation and personal organisation. So we decided to try to understand the problem observed in depth. For the purpose of understanding the nature and the extent of these difficulties, we used a methodology focused on analysis of a questionnaire applied to the students about their perception of the difficulties in managing the learning process and about the strategies used for dealing with those difficulties. Although the students acknowledge that the development of the individual online portfolio in a PLE requires that, for the most part, largely they themselves have to get organised and manage of their own learning (Barrett, 2000; Attwell, 2007), one can see that they do not feel prepared for this, experiencing difficulties in personal organisation, time management and regular participation in the proposed activities. In strategic terms, they value the appraisals and/or suggestions given by the teachers, but do not adopt an attitude of reflection or interaction and sharing with others, as catered for by the platform and its functionalities

    A comunicação organizacional nas associaçÔes empresariais

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    Este artigo versa a temĂĄtica da comunicação organizacional em determinadas associaçÔes empresariais, mediante a anĂĄlise das pĂĄginas da Internet das associaçÔes estudadas. Neste Ăąmbito, e atravĂ©s da anĂĄlise de conteĂșdo, foram estudados 11 sites com base numa grelha. ConcluĂ­mos que, as associaçÔes empresariais, Ă  semelhança de outras organizaçÔes, preocupam- se com a comunicação organizacional, utilizando a Internet como um instrumento comunicativo da instituição. This paper considers the problem of organizational communication in certain business associations, through the analysis of the Internet pages of the studied associations. In this context, and through the analysis of content, we studied 11 sites based on a grid. We conclude that, business associations, like other organizations, are concerned about organizational communication, using the Internet as a communicative tool of the institution

    The Role of Gender Inequalities in Explaining Income Growth, Poverty and Inequality: Evidence from Latin American Countries

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    This Working Paper investigates the possible link between gender inequalities in the labour market and significant economic outcomes such as income growth, poverty and inequality indicators. Our analysis is based on microsimulations for eight Latin American countries. We consider four aspects of gender inequalities: differences in labour market participation, differences in occupational status, wage discrimination and differences in characteristics. Our findings highlight the relevance of gender equality, especially an increase in women?s access to the labour market, in bringing about a reduction in poverty and inequality.The Role of Gender Inequalities in Explaining Income Growth, Poverty and Inequality: Evidence from Latin American Countries
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