6,837 research outputs found

    Avian Resistance to Campylobacter jejuni Colonization Is Associated with an Intestinal Immunogene Expression Signature Identified by mRNA Sequencing

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    peer-reviewedThis research was funded by the The Irish Department of Agriculture and Food’s Food Institutional Research Measure (http://www.agriculture.gov.ie/ research/foodinstitutionalresearchmeasurefirm) – Grant No: 06_RDD_486.Campylobacter jejuni is the most common cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis and is associated with several post-infectious manifestations, including onset of the autoimmune neuropathy Guillain-Barré syndrome, causing significant morbidity and mortality. Poorly-cooked chicken meat is the most frequent source of infection as C. jejuni colonizes the avian intestine in a commensal relationship. However, not all chickens are equally colonized and resistance seems to be genetically determined. We hypothesize that differences in immune response may contribute to variation in colonization levels between susceptible and resistant birds. Using high-throughput sequencing in an avian infection model, we investigate gene expression associated with resistance or susceptibility to colonization of the gastrointestinal tract with C. jejuni and find that gut related immune mechanisms are critical for regulating colonization. Amongst a single population of 300 4-week old chickens, there was clear segregation in levels of C. jejuni colonization 48 hours post-exposure. RNAseq analysis of caecal tissue from 14 C. jejuni-susceptible and 14 C. jejuni-resistant birds generated over 363 million short mRNA sequences which were investigated to identify 219 differentially expressed genes. Significantly higher expression of genes involved in the innate immune response, cytokine signaling, B cell and T cell activation and immunoglobulin production, as well as the renin-angiotensin system was observed in resistant birds, suggesting an early active immune response to C. jejuni. Lower expression of these genes in colonized birds suggests suppression or inhibition of a clearing immune response thus facilitating commensal colonization and generating vectors for zoonotic transmission. This study describes biological processes regulating C. jejuni colonization of the avian intestine and gives insight into the differential immune mechanisms incited in response to commensal bacteria in general within vertebrate populations. The results reported here illustrate how an exaggerated immune response may be elicited in a subset of the population, which alters host-microbe interactions and inhibits the commensal state, therefore having wider relevance with regard to inflammatory and autoimmune disease

    Effect of LEO Exposure on Aromatic Polymers Containing Phenylphosphine Oxide Groups

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    As part of the Materials on The International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), aromatic polymers containing phenylphosphine oxide groups were exposed to low Earth orbit for approx.4 years. All of the aromatic polymers containing phenylphosphine oxide groups survived the exposure despite the high fluence of atomic oxygen that completely eroded other polymer films such as Kapton(TradeMark) and Mylar(Trademark) of comparable or greater thickness. The samples were characterized for changes in physical properties, thermal/optical properties surface chemistry, and surface topography. The data from the polymer samples on MISSE were compared to samples from the same batch of material stored under ambient conditions on Earth. In addition, comparisons were made between the MISSE samples and those subjected to shorter term space flight exposures. The results of these analyses will be presented

    'Mine's a Pint of Bitter': Performativity, gender, class and representations of authenticity in real-ale tourism

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    Leisure choices are expressive of individual agency around the maintenance of taste, boundaries, identity and community. This research paper is part of a wider project designed to assess the social and cultural value of real ale to tourism in the north of England. This paper explores the performativity of real-ale tourism and debates about belonging in northern English real-ale communities. The research combines an ethnographic case study of a real-ale festival with semi-structured interviews with organisers and volunteers, northern English real-ale brewers and real-ale tourists visiting the festival. It is argued that real-ale tourism, despite its origins in the logic of capitalism, becomes a space where people can perform Habermasian, communicative leisure, and despite the contradictions of preferring some capitalist industries over others on the basis of their perceived smaller size and older age, real-ale fans demonstrate agency in their performativity

    Women, know your limits: Cultural sexism in academia

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    Despite the considerable advances of the feminist movement across Western societies, in Universities women are less likely to be promoted, or paid as much as their male colleagues, or even get jobs in the first place. One way in which we can start to reflect on why this might be the case is through hearing the experiences of women academics themselves. Using feminist methodology, this article attempts to unpack and explore just some examples of ‘cultural sexism’ which characterise the working lives of many women in British academia.This article uses qualitative methods to describe and make sense of just some of those experiences. In so doing, the argument is also made that the activity of academia is profoundly gendered and this explicit acknowledgement may contribute to our understanding of the under-representation of women in senior positions

    Effect of LEO Exposure on Aromatic Polymers Containing Phenylphosphine Oxide Groups

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    As part of the Materials on The International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), aromatic polymers containing phenylphosphine oxide groups were exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for approximately 4 years. All of the aromatic polymers containing phenylphosphine oxide groups survived the exposure despite the high fluence of atomic oxygen that completely eroded other polymer films such as Kapton and Mylar of comparable or greater thickness. The samples consisted of a colorless polyimide film and a poly(arylene ether benzimidazole) film and thread. The samples were characterized for changes in physical properties, thermal/optical properties (i.e. solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity), surface chemistry (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), and surface topography (atomic force microscopy). The data from the polymer samples on MISSE were compared to samples from the same batch of material stored under ambient conditions on Earth. In addition, comparisons were made between the MISSE samples and those subjected to shorter term space flight exposures. The results of these analyses will be presented

    Cosmic ray neon, Wolf-Rayet stars, and the superbubble origin of galactic cosmic rays

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    The abundances of neon isotopes in the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) are reported using data from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) aboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE). We compare our ACE-CRIS data for neon and refractory isotope ratios, and data from other experiments, with recent results from two-component Wolf-Rayet (WR) models. The three largest deviations of GCR isotope ratios from solar-system ratios predicted by these models are indeed present in the GCRs. Since WR stars are evolutionary products of OB stars, and most OB stars exist in OB associations that form superbubbles, the good agreement of these data with WR models suggests that superbubbles are the likely source of at least a substantial fraction of GCRs.Comment: 22 pages, 6 figures Accepted for publication by Ap

    Nebivolol, a beta adrenergic receptor antagonist blocks angiotensin II-mediated signaling in heart [abstract]

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    We recently showed that Nebivolol, a [beta]-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist attenuates myocardial oxidative stress and promotes insulin metabolic signaling in 9 week old Zucker obese (ZO) insulin resistant rats. Here, we demonstrate that Nebivolol suppresses angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R)-mediated signaling in ZO hearts as well as in HL-1 cardiomyocytes

    Negotiations of minority ethnic rugby league players in the Cathar country of France

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    This article is based on new empirical, qualitative research with minority ethnic rugby league players in the southwest of France. Drawing on similar research on rugby league in the north and the south of England, the article examines how rugby league, traditionally viewed as a white, working-class male game (Collins, 2006; Denham, 2004; Spracklen, 1995, 2001) has had to re-imagine its symbolic boundaries as they are constituted globally and locally to accommodate the needs of players from minority ethnic backgrounds. In particular, the article examines the sense in which experiences of minority ethnic rugby league players in France compare with those of their counterparts in England (Spracklen, 2001, 2007), how rugby league is used in France to construct identity, and in what sense the norms associated with the imaginary community of rugby league are replicated or challenged by the involvement of minority ethnic rugby league players in France. Questions about what it means to be (provincial, national) French (Kumar, 2006) are posed, questions that relate to the role of sport in the construction of Frenchness, and in particular the role of rugby league (and union). © Copyright ISSA and SAGE Publications

    MCG+00-32-16: An Irregular Galaxy Close to the Lowest Redshift Absorber on the 3C 273 Line of Sight

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    MCG+00-32-16 is the galaxy closest in position-velocity space to the lowest redshift Lyα\alpha absorber along the line-of-sight to the quasar 3C 273. Its projected separation is 204 (d/19 Mpc) kpc, where d is the distance from the Milky Way to the galaxy, and the redshift difference is only 94 km/s; HI 1225+01 is slightly closer in projected separation to the absorber, but has a greater redshift difference. We present HI synthesis array mapping and CCD photometry in B and R for MCG+00-32-16. The HI disk is rotating in such a way that the side of the galaxy closer to the sight-line to the quasar has the larger velocity difference from the absorber. The absorber may be a ``failed dwarf'' member of a poor galaxy group of which MCG+00-32-16 and HI 1225+01 are the only members to have formed stars.Comment: 14 pages, 9 figures, accepted by Astrophysical Journa

    Food Sovereignty and Agricultural Land Use Planning: The Need to Integrate Public Priorities Across Jurisdictions

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    Recent calls for national food policies that promote greater food sovereignty represent an emerging concern of public policy. Such a shift in food policy toward greater citizen control over domestic food supplies would have significant implications for all aspects of the agri-food system. One area of concern is the conservation and use of agricultural land because, in the end, every act of producing and consuming food has direct or indirect impacts on the land base. Yet no research has considered the potential interactions and implications between food sovereignty and agricultural land use planning. This gap in research presents an opportunity to critically examine the effects of the changing roles and values on agricultural land use planning within and across jurisdictions. We believe that a better understanding of the dominant policy regimes within the agri-food system, including global competitiveness, farmland preservation, and food sovereignty, can lead to land use planning practices that are most beneficial for integrating not only multiple interests across jurisdictions, but also multiple perspectives
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