479 research outputs found

    Building a future...An exploration of the contribution of educational provision to clients’ well-being at Southwark Day Centre for Asylum Seekers

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    This research project builds on previous work, ‘Beneath the Surface’ (Cogo, Inman, McCormack, Rogers 2018) which focussed on how clients at Southwark Day Centre for Asylum Seekers (SDCAS) understood and evaluated their well-being. One of the areas touched on in that research was the role of educational activities in developing the well-being of clients. This report describes in depth the ways in which the educational provision offered in the centre contributes to the well-being of clients and how this contribution might be enhanced. The report focuses on two areas of education provision; gardening and storytelling and explains how they contribute to the well-being of the clients. The interview data confirms that the activities in these two areas help to build clients’ psychological, physical and social resources and have a positive effect on how clients feel and how they function in the world. The report ends with recommendations as to how SDCAS might ensure that gardening and storytelling continue to benefit the well-being of clients and also as to what might be put in place to strengthen the activities

    Stories from lockdown: the impact of the Covid19 pandemic on the well-being of clients at Southwark Day Centre for Asylum Seekers (SDCAS)

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    The report describes the findings of research on how the Covid 19 related lockdowns affected the well-being of clients at the Southwark Day Centre for Asylum Seekers. A small number of clients were interviewed about the practical issues of housing, food, money and about their physical and mental health during the periods of lockdowns. They were also asked about support from the Southwark Day Centre for Asylum Seekers. The report describes the experiences of these clients between March 2020 and March 202

    A systematic review of cost-effectiveness analyses of complex wound interventions reveals optimal treatments for specific wound types.

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    BackgroundComplex wounds present a substantial economic burden on healthcare systems, costing billions of dollars annually in North America alone. The prevalence of complex wounds is a significant patient and societal healthcare concern and cost-effective wound care management remains unclear. This article summarizes the cost-effectiveness of interventions for complex wound care through a systematic review of the evidence base.MethodsWe searched multiple databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library) for cost-effectiveness studies that examined adults treated for complex wounds. Two reviewers independently screened the literature, abstracted data from full-text articles, and assessed methodological quality using the Drummond 10-item methodological quality tool. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were reported, or, if not reported, calculated and converted to United States Dollars for the year 2013.ResultsOverall, 59 cost-effectiveness analyses were included; 71% (42 out of 59) of the included studies scored 8 or more points on the Drummond 10-item checklist tool. Based on these, 22 interventions were found to be more effective and less costly (i.e., dominant) compared to the study comparators: 9 for diabetic ulcers, 8 for venous ulcers, 3 for pressure ulcers, 1 for mixed venous and venous/arterial ulcers, and 1 for mixed complex wound types.ConclusionsOur results can be used by decision-makers in maximizing the deployment of clinically effective and resource efficient wound care interventions. Our analysis also highlights specific treatments that are not cost-effective, thereby indicating areas of resource savings. Please see related article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-015-0288-5

    Disaturated-phosphatidylcholine and Surfactant protein-B turnover in human acute lung injury and in control patients

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Patients with Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and Acute Lung Injury (ALI) have low concentrations of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine and surfactant protein-B in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. No information is available on their turnover.</p> <p>Objectives</p> <p>To analyze disaturated-phosphatidylcholine and surfactant protein-B turnover in patients with ARDS/ALI and in human adults with normal lungs (controls).</p> <p>Methods</p> <p><sup>2</sup>H<sub>2</sub>O as precursor of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine-palmitate and 1<sup>13</sup>C-Leucine as precursor of surfactant protein-B were administered intravenously to 12 patients with ARDS/ALI and to 8 controls. Disaturated-phosphatidylcholine and surfactant protein-B were isolated from serial tracheal aspirates, and their fractional synthetic rate was derived from the <sup>2</sup>H and <sup>13</sup>C enrichment curves, obtained by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Disaturated-phosphatidylcholine, surfactant protein-B, and protein concentrations in tracheal aspirates were also measured.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>1) Surfactant protein-B turned over at faster rate than disaturated-phosphatidylcholine both in ARDS/ALI patients and in controls. 2) In patients with ARDS/ALI the fractional synthesis rate of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine was 3.1 times higher than in controls (p < 0.01), while the fractional synthesis rate of surfactant protein-B was not different. 3) In ARDS/ALI patients the concentrations of disaturated-phosphatidylcholine and surfactant protein-B in tracheal aspirates were markedly and significantly reduced (17% and 40% of the control values respectively).</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>1) Disaturated-phosphatidylcholine and surfactant protein-B have a different turnover both in healthy and diseased lungs. 2) In ARDS/ALI the synthesis of these two surfactant components may be differently regulated.</p

    Vellozia flavicans Mart. ex Schult. hydroalcoholic extract inhibits the neuromuscular blockade induced by Bothrops jararacussu venom

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    FAPESP - FUNDAÇÃO DE AMPARO À PESQUISA DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULOBackground: Snakebite is a significant public health issue in tropical countries. In Brazil, some of the most common snake envenomations are from Bothrops. Bothrops bites trigger local and systemic effects including edema, pain, erythema, cyanosis, infections, and necrosis. Vellozia flavicans is a plant from the Brazilian " cerrado" (savanna) that is popularly used as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Since inflammation develops quickly after Bothrops bites, which can lead to infection, the aim of the present study was to observe possible anti-snake venom and antimicrobial activities of V. flavicans (Vf). Methods: The chromatographic profile of the main constituents from the Vf leaf hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The anti-snake venom activity was measured by Vf's ability to neutralize the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) in a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm model (PND). After a 20 min incubation, preparations of PND were added to Tyrode's solution (control); Vf (0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL); 40 μg/mL Bjssu; pre-incubation for 30 min with Bjssu and 1 mg/mL Vf; and a Bjssu pretreated preparation (for 10 min) followed by 1 mg/mL Vf. Myographic recording was performed, and the contractile responses were recorded. The antimicrobial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] and minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC]) was obtained for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis, using gentamicin and vancomycin as positive controls. Results: TLC analysis yielded several compounds from Vf, such as flavonoids (quercetin) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). Bjssu completely blocked the contractile responses of PND preparations, while Vf preserved 97% (±10%) of the contractile responses when incubated with Bjssu. In the PND pretreated with Bjssu, Vf was able to inhibit the neuromuscular blockade progress. MIC and MBC of Vf ranged from 2.5 to 5.0 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains, while no antimicrobial activity was observed for E. coli and E. faecalis.Conclusions: The hydroalcoholic extract from Vf leaves was able to neutralize and decrease the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bjssu. However, it did not show significant antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria. © 2014 Tribuiani et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.Snakebite is a significant public health issue in tropical countries. In Brazil, some of the most common snake envenomations are from Bothrops. Bothrops bites trigger local and systemic effects including edema, pain, erythema, cyanosis, infections, and necrosis. Vellozia flavicans is a plant from the Brazilian "cerrado" (savanna) that is popularly used as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Since inflammation develops quickly after Bothrops bites, which can lead to infection, the aim of the present study was to observe possible anti-snake venom and antimicrobial activities of V. flavicans (Vf). The chromatographic profile of the main constituents from the Vf leaf hydroalcoholic extract was obtained by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The anti-snake venom activity was measured by Vf's ability to neutralize the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bothrops jararacussu venom (Bjssu) in a mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm model (PND). After a 20 min incubation, preparations of PND were added to Tyrode's solution (control); Vf (0.2, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL); 40 μg/mL Bjssu; pre-incubation for 30 min with Bjssu and 1 mg/mL Vf; and a Bjssu pretreated preparation (for 10 min) followed by 1 mg/mL Vf. Myographic recording was performed, and the contractile responses were recorded. The antimicrobial activity (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] and minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC]) was obtained for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis, using gentamicin and vancomycin as positive controls. TLC analysis yielded several compounds from Vf, such as flavonoids (quercetin) and phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid). Bjssu completely blocked the contractile responses of PND preparations, while Vf preserved 97% (±10%) of the contractile responses when incubated with Bjssu. In the PND pretreated with Bjssu, Vf was able to inhibit the neuromuscular blockade progress. MIC and MBC of Vf ranged from 2.5 to 5.0 mg/mL for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus strains, while no antimicrobial activity was observed for E. coli and E. faecalis. The hydroalcoholic extract from Vf leaves was able to neutralize and decrease the in vitro neuromuscular blockade caused by Bjssu. However, it did not show significant antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria14FAPESP - FUNDAÇÃO DE AMPARO À PESQUISA DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULOFAPESP - FUNDAÇÃO DE AMPARO À PESQUISA DO ESTADO DE SÃO PAULO2004/09705-8; 2007/53883-6; 2008/52643-4; 2008/11005-5; 2012/08271-0Neglected tropical diseases: Snakebite, , http://www.who.int/bloodproducts/animal_sera/Rabies.pdf?ua=1, WHO - World Health Organization(2009) Textos Básicos de Saúde (Cadernos de Atenção Básican. 22), , Health surveillance:zoonoses, Brasil. 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Techniques of Plants Analysis, , London: Chapman & HallCintra Francischinelli, M., Silva, M.G., Andréo Filho, N., Cintra, A.C.O., Leite, G.B., Cruz Höfling, M.A.D.A., Rodrigues Simioni, L., Oshima Franco, Y., Effects of commonly used solubilizing agents on a model nerve-muscle synapse (2008) Lat Am J Pharm, 27, pp. 721-726Siles Villaroel, M., Rolim Rosa, R., Zelante, F., Furlanetto, R.S., Padronização da avaliação da potência de antivenenos botrópicos, em camundongos (1978) Mem Inst Butantan, 42-43, pp. 325-336Bülbring, E., Observation on the isolated phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation of the rat (1946) Br J Pharmacol, 1, pp. 38-61Ferraz, M.C., Parrilha, L.A.C., Moraes, M.S.D., Amaral Filho, J., Cogo, J.C., Dos Santos, M.G., Franco, L.M., Oshima Franco, Y., The effect of lupane triterpenoids (Dipteryx alata Vogel) in the in vitro neuromuscular blockade and myotoxicity of two snake venoms (2012) Curr Org Chem, 16, pp. 2717-2723Puebla, P., Oshima-Franco, Y., Franco, L.M., Santos, M.G., Silva, R.V., Rubem-Mauro, L., Feliciano, A.S., Chemical constituents of the bark of Dipteryx alata Vogel, an active species against Bothrops jararacussu venom (2010) Molecules, 15, pp. 8193-8204Gottlieb, O., Kaplan, M.A., Das plantas medicinais aos fármacos naturais (1993) Cienc Hoje, 15, pp. 51-54Souza Brito, A.R.M., How to study the pharmacology of medicinal plants in underdeveloped countries (1996) J Ethnopharmacol, 54, pp. 131-138Martini, N.D., Katerere, D.R., Eloff, J.N., Biological activity of five antibacterial flavonoids from Combretum erythrophyllum (Combretaceae) (2004) J Ethnopharmacol, 93, pp. 207-212Rates, S.M.K., Plants as source of drugs (2001) Toxicon, 39, pp. 603-613Soares, A.M., Ticli, F.K., Marcussi, S., Lourenço, M.V., Januário, A.H., Sampaio, S.V., Giglio, J.R., Pereira, O.S., Medicinal plants with inhibitory properties against snake venoms (2005) Curr Med Chem, 12, pp. 2625-2641Mors, W.B., Do Nascimento, M.C., Pereira, B.M.R., Pereira, N.A., Plant natural products active against snake bite - the molecular approach (2000) Phytochemistry, 55, pp. 627-642Barbosa, A.M., Villaverde, A.B., Guimarães Souza, L., Ribeiro, W., Cogo, J.C., Zamuner, S.R., Effect of low-level laser therapy in the inflammatory response induced by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom (2008) Toxicon, 1 (51), pp. 1236-1244Oshima-Franco, Y., Hyslop, S., Cintra, A.C., Giglio, J.R., da Cruz-Höfling, M.A., Rodrigues-Simioni, L., Neutralizing capacity of commercial bothropic antivenom against Bothrops jararacussu venom and bothropstoxin-I. (2000) Muscle Nerve, 23, pp. 1832-1839Oshima Franco, Y., Rosa, L.J.R., Silva, G.A.A., Amaral Filho, J., Silva, M.G., Lopes, P.S., Cogo, J.C., Da Cruz Höfling, M.A., Antibothropic action of Camellia sinensis extract against the neuromuscular blockade by Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and its mais toxin, bothropstoxin-I (2012) Pharmacology, pp. 469-489. , Croatia: Intech, Gallelli LMilani Júnior, R., Jorge, M.T., de Campos, F.P., Martins, F.P., Bousso, A., Cardoso, J.L., Ribeiro, L.A., Warrell, D.A., Snake bites by the jararacuçu (Bothrops jararacussu): clinic pathological studies of 29 proven cases in São Paulo State (1997) Brazil. QJM, 90, pp. 323-334Petricevich, V.L., Teixeira, C.F.P., Tambourghi, D.V., Gutiérrez, J.M., Increments in serum cytokine and nitric oxide levels in mice injected with Bothrops asper and Bothrops jararaca snake venom (2000) Toxicon, 38, pp. 1253-1266(2007) Rabies and envenomings: a neglected public health issue, , http://www.who.int/bloodproducts/animal_sera/Rabies.pdf, Available from: WHO - World Health OrganizationMalomouzh, A.I., Mukhtarov, M.R., Nikolsky, E.E., Vyskocil, F., Lieberman, E.M., Urazaev, A.K., Glutamate regulation of non-quantal release of acetylcholine in the rat neuromuscular junction (2003) J Neurochem, 85, pp. 206-213Rubem Mauro, L., Rocha, D.S., Barcelos, C.C., Varca, G.H., Andréo Filho, N., Barberato Filho, S., Oshima Franco, Y., Phenobarbital pharmacological findings on the nerve-muscle basis (2009) Lat Am J Pharm, 28, pp. 211-218. , Vila MMDCCintra-Francischinelli, M., Silva, M.G., Andréo-Filho, N., Gerenutti, M., Cintra, A.C.O., Giglio, J.R., Leite, G.B., Oshima-Franco, Y., Antibothropic action of Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae) extracts (2008) Phytother Res, 22, pp. 784-790Camargo, T.M., Nazato, V.S., Silva, M.G., Cogo, J.C., Groppo, F.C., Oshima-Franco, Y., Bothrops jararacussu venom-induced neuromuscular blockade inhibited by Casearia gossypiosperma Briquet hydroalcoholic extract (2010) J Venom Anim Toxins incl Trop Dis, 16, pp. 432-441Nazato, V.S., Rubem Mauro, L., Vieira, N.A.G., Rocha Junior, D., Dos, S., Silva, M.G., Lopes, P.S., Oshima Franco, Y., vitro antiophidian properties of Dipteryx alata Vogel bark extracts (2010) Molecules, 15, pp. 5956-5970Melo, R.F., Farrapo, N.M., Rocha Junior, D.S., Silva, M.G., Cogo, J.C., Dal Belo, C.A., Rodrigues Simioni, L., Oshima Franco, Y., Antiophidian mechanisms of medicinal plants (2009) Flavonoids: Biosynthesis, Biological Effects and Dietary Sources, pp. 249-262. , New York: Nova Science Publishers, Keller RBFarrapo, N.M., Silva, G.A.A., Costa, K.N., Silva, M.G., Cogo, J.C., Dal Belo, C.A., Dos Santos, M.G., Oshima Franco, Y., Inhibition of Bothrops jararacussu venom activities by Plathymenia reticulata Benth extracts (2011) J Venom Res, 2, pp. 52-58Cos, P., Vlietinc, A.J., Berghe, D.V., Maes, L., Anti-infective potential of natural products: how to develop a stronger in vitro 'proof-of-concept' (2006) J Ethnopharmacol, 103, pp. 290-302Mishra, U.S., Mishra, A., Kumari, R., Murthy, P.N., Naik, B.S., Antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata (2009) Indian J Pharm Sci, 71, pp. 436-438Premendran, S.J., Salwe, K.J., Pathak, S., Brahmane, R., Manimekalai, K., Anti-cobra venom activity of plant Andrographis paniculata and its comparison with polyvalent anti-snake venom (2011) J Nat Sci Biol Med, 2, pp. 198-204Mahadeswaraswamy, Y.H., Nagaraju, S., Girish, K.S., Kemparaju, K., Local tissue destruction and procoagulation properties of Echis carinatus venom: inhibition by Vitis vinifera seed methanol extract (2008) Phytother Res, 22, pp. 963-969Oliveira, D.A., Salvador, A.A., Smânia, A., Smânia, E.F., Maraschin, M., Ferreira, S.R., Antimicrobial activity and composition profile of grape (Vitis vinifera) pomace extracts obtained by supercritical fluids (2013) J Biotechnol, 164, pp. 423-43

    Validación psicométrica del instrumento audio guiado rBVQ para la evaluación del bullying

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    The revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (rBVQ) is an internationally used instrument to identify bullying, but due to Brazilian students’ low proficiency in reading and writing, it had to be adapted for audio-guided use through smartphones. We investigated construct validity, using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), under a two-correlated factor solution. Participated 1,742 fifth graders and 2,316 seventh graders from 30 public schools in the city of São Paulo. We found excellent fit indices models for both grades (fifth grade: CFI=0.985, RMSEA=0.020; seventh grade: CFI=0.990, RMSEA=0.015), as well as factor loading higher than 0.4 for all items, indicating their relevance to the construct. The rBVQ demonstrated excellent psychometric properties and may help future studies that aim to investigate bullying in populations with similar profiles. In addition, this study innovates by evaluating an audio-guided instrument and using mobile technology.El Cuestionario Revisado de Bullying de Olweus (rBVQ) es un instrumento utilizado internacionalmente para identificar bullying, pero debido a las dificultades de estudiantes brasileños en la lectura y la escritura, se ha adaptado su uso por medio de audioguías en smartphones. Se investigó la validez del constructo mediante el Análisis Factorial Confirmatorio, bajo un modelo de dos factores. Participaron 1742 y 2316 estudiantes de quinto y séptimo curso de 30 escuelas públicas de São Paulo. Excelentes tasas de adecuación fueron encontradas para ambos casos (quinto año: CFI=0,985, RMSEA=0,020; séptimo año: CFI=0,990, RMSEA=0,015), además de cargas factoriales superiores a 0,4 para todos los ítems, lo que indica su relevancia para el constructo. El instrumento rBVQ ha presentado excelentes propiedades psicométricas y puede ayudar a futuros estudios pretendan investigar el bullying en poblaciones con perfiles similares. Además, este estudio innova al evaluar un instrumento guiado por audio, empleando la tecnología móvil.publishedVersio

    Influencia da cobertura vegetal morta na reducao da velocidade da enxurrada e na distribuicao de tamanho dos sedimentos transportados.

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    O efeito da porcentagem de cobertura do solo com residuos culturais na reducao da velocidade do escoamennto superficial da agua e distribuicao de tamanho dos sedimentos erodidos, foi avaliado em condicoes de chuva simulada, na Estacao Experimental Agronomica da UFRGS, em Guaiba (RS). A area utilizada para o estudo encontra-se em solo franco-arenoso (Podzolico Vermelho-Amarelo distrofico abrupto petroferrico), com 7,5% de declividade. Os tratamentos principais consistiram em residuos culturais de milho, trigo e soja, espalhados uniformemente sobre superficie de solo preparada convencionalmente, em percentagens de cobertura do solo de 0 a 100% Independente do tipo de residuo cultural utilizado, o aumento na percentagem de cobertura do solo diminuiu acentuadamente a velocidade do escoamento superficial da agua, com a resteva de trigo mostrando-se mais eficaz. A percentagem de sedimentos de maior tamanho transportados na enxurrada e os valores do indice D50 diminuiram com o aumento da percentagem de cobertura do solo em todos os tipos de residuos culturais estudados, e cresceram com o aumento da velocidade do escoamento superficial da agua

    Increased use of high-flow nasal cannulas after the pandemic in bronchiolitis: a more severe disease or a changed physician’s attitude?

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    After the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, we noticed a marked increase in high-flow nasal cannula use for bronchiolitis. This study aims to report the percentage of children treated with high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in various seasons. The secondary outcomes were admissions for bronchiolitis, virological results, hospital burden, and NICU/PICU need. We conducted a retrospective study in four Italian hospitals, examining the medical records of all infants (< 12 months) hospitalized for bronchiolitis in the last four winter seasons (1 September–31 March 2018–2022). In the 2021–2022 winter season, 66% of admitted children received HFNC versus 23%, 38%, and 35% in the previous 3 years. A total of 876 patients were hospitalized in the study periods. In 2021–2022, 300 infants were hospitalized for bronchiolitis, 22 in 2020–2021, 259 in 2019–2020, and 295 in 2018–2019. The percentage of patients needing intensive care varied from 28.7% to 18%, 22%, and 15% in each of the four considered periods (p < 0.05). Seventy-seven percent of children received oxygen in the 2021–2022 winter; vs 50%, 63%, and 55% (p < 0.01) in the previous 3 years. NIV/CPAP was used in 23%, 9%, 16%, and 12%, respectively. In 2021–2020, 2% of patients were intubated; 0 in 2020–2021, 3% in 2019–2020, and 1% in 2018–2019. Conclusion: This study shows a marked increase in respiratory support and intensive care admissions this last winter. While these severity indexes were all driven by medical choices, more reliable indexes such as intubation rate and length of stay did not change. Therefore, we suggest that there is a more aggressive treatment attitude rather than a more severe disease.What is Known:• COVID-19 pandemic deeply impacted bronchiolitis epidemiology, reducing hospitalizations to onetenth. In the 2021-2022 winter, bronchiolitis resurged to pre-pandemic numbers in Europe.What is New:• Bronchiolitis hospitalization rose much faster in the 2021-2022 winter period, peaking at a higher level. Respiratory supports and high-flow nasal cannula increased significantly compared to the pre-pandemic era

    GNSS Multi-constellation Positioning Problem: A Numerical Optimization Approach

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    Abstract. In this work we analyze the integration of multiple Global Navigation Satellite Systems to get the user position solution. We describe and analyze the different ways that the problem can arise and propose an approach to generalize them onto the same formulation. To solve the resulting problem, we propose two different numerical optimization techniques, the steepest descent method and the Quasi-Newton method. We validate and asses the performance of the proposed technique by means of simulation. Extensive simulations are also employed to analyze the solution availability and performance that the multi-constellation integration can offer. The enhancement obtained justifies the use of the proposed solution method
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