4,713 research outputs found

    Wind-tunnel free-flight investigation of a model of a spin-resistant fighter configuration

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    An investigation was conducted to provide some insight into the features affecting the high-angle-of-attack characteristics of a high-performance twin-engine fighter airplane which in operation has exhibited excellent stall characteristics with a general resistance to spinning. Various techniques employed in the study included wind-tunnel free-flight tests, flow-visualization tests, static force tests, and dynamic (forced-oscillation) tests. In addition to tests conducted on the basic configuration tests were made with the wing planform and the fuselage nose modified. The results of the study showed that the model exhibited good dynamic stability characteristics at angles of attack well beyond that for wing stall. The directional stability of the model was provided by the vertical tail at low and moderate angles of attack and by the fuselage forebody at high angles of attack. The wing planform was found to have little effect on the stability characteristics at high angles of attack. The tests also showed that although the fuselage forebody produced beneficial contributions to static directional stability at high angles of attack, it also produced unstable values of damping in yaw. Nose strakes located in a position which eliminated the beneficial nose contributions produced a severe directional divergence

    Monitoring and Discovering X-ray Pulsars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

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    Regular monitoring of the SMC with RXTE has revealed a huge number of X-ray pulsars. Together with discoveries from other satellites at least 45 SMC pulsars are now known. One of these sources, a pulsar with a period of approximately 7.8 seconds, was first detected in early 2002 and since discovery it has been found to be in outburst nine times. The outburst pattern clearly shows a period of 45.1 +/- 0.4 d which is thought to be the orbital period of this system. Candidate outburst periods have also been obtained for nine other pulsars and continued monitoring will enable us to confirm these. This large number of pulsars, all located at approximately the same distance, enables a wealth of comparative studies. In addition, the large number of pulsars found (which vastly exceeds the number expected simply by scaling the relative mass of the SMC and the Galaxy) reveals the recent star formation history of the SMC which has been influenced by encounters with both the LMC and the Galaxy.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, AIP conference proceedings format. Contribution to "X-ray Timing 2003: Rossi and Beyond." meeting held in Cambridge, MA, November, 200

    Swift J053041.9-665426, a new Be/X-ray binary pulsar in the Large Magellanic Cloud

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    We observed the newly discovered X-ray source Swift J053041.9-665426 in the X-ray and optical regime to confirm its proposed nature as a high mass X-ray binary. We obtained XMM-Newton and Swift X-ray data, along with optical observations with the ESO Faint Object Spectrograph, to investigate the spectral and temporal characteristics of Swift J053041.9-665426. The XMM-Newton data show coherent X-ray pulsations with a period of 28.77521(10) s (1 sigma). The X-ray spectrum can be modelled by an absorbed power law with photon index within the range 0.76 to 0.87. The addition of a black body component increases the quality of the fit but also leads to strong dependences of the photon index, black-body temperature and absorption column density. We identified the only optical counterpart within the error circle of XMM-Newton at an angular distance of ~0.8 arcsec, which is 2MASS J05304215-6654303. We performed optical spectroscopy from which we classify the companion as a B0-1.5Ve star. The X-ray pulsations and long-term variability, as well as the properties of the optical counterpart, confirm that Swift J053041.9-665426 is a new Be/X-ray binary pulsar in the Large Magellanic Cloud.Comment: 10 pages, 8 figures, accepted for publication in A&

    A new super-soft X-ray source in the Small Magellanic Cloud: Discovery of the first Be/white dwarf system in the SMC?

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    The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) hosts a large number of Be/X-ray binaries, however no Be/white dwarf system is known so far, although population synthesis calculations predict that they might be more frequent than Be/neutron star systems. XMMUJ010147.5-715550 was found as a new faint super-soft X-ray source (SSS) with a likely Be star optical counterpart. We investigate the nature of this system and search for further high-absorbed candidates in the SMC. We analysed the XMM-Newton X-ray spectrum and light curve, optical photometry, and the I-band OGLE III light curve. The X-ray spectrum is well represented by black-body and white dwarf atmosphere models with highly model-dependent temperature between 20 and 100 eV. The likely optical counterpart AzV 281 showed low near infrared emission during X-ray activity, followed by a brightening in the I-band afterwards. We find further candidates for high-absorbed SSSs with a blue star as counterpart. We discuss XMMUJ010147.5-715550 as the first candidate for a Be/white dwarf binary system in the SMC.Comment: 6 pages, 4 figures, accepted by A&

    Diquat Derivatives: Highly Active, Two-Dimensional Nonlinear Optical Chromophores with Potential Redox Switchability

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    In this article, we present a detailed study of structure−activity relationships in diquaternized 2,2′-bipyridyl (diquat) derivatives. Sixteen new chromophores have been synthesized, with variations in the amino electron donor substituents, π-conjugated bridge, and alkyl diquaternizing unit. Our aim is to combine very large, two-dimensional (2D) quadratic nonlinear optical (NLO) responses with reversible redox chemistry. The chromophores have been characterized as their PF_6^− salts by using various techniques including electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Their visible absorption spectra are dominated by intense π → π^* intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) bands, and all show two reversible diquat-based reductions. First hyperpolarizabilities β have been measured by using hyper-Rayleigh scattering with an 800 nm laser, and Stark spectroscopy of the ICT bands affords estimated static first hyperpolarizabilities β_0. The directly and indirectly derived β values are large and increase with the extent of π-conjugation and electron donor strength. Extending the quaternizing alkyl linkage always increases the ICT energy and decreases the E_(1/2) values for diquat reduction, but a compensating increase in the ICT intensity prevents significant decreases in Stark-based β_0 responses. Nine single-crystal X-ray structures have also been obtained. Time-dependent density functional theory clarifies the molecular electronic/optical properties, and finite field calculations agree with polarized HRS data in that the NLO responses of the disubstituted species are dominated by ‘off-diagonal’ β_(zyy) components. The most significant findings of these studies are: (i) β_0 values as much as 6 times that of the chromophore in the technologically important material (E)-4′-(dimethylamino)-N-methyl-4-stilbazolium tosylate; (ii) reversible electrochemistry that offers potential for redox-switching of optical properties over multiple states; (iii) strongly 2D NLO responses that may be exploited for novel practical applications; (iv) a new polar material, suitable for bulk NLO behavior

    The binary period and outburst behaviour of the SMC X-ray binary pulsar system SXP504

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    A probable binary period has been detected in the optical counterpart to the X-ray source CXOU J005455.6-724510 = RX J0054.9-7245 = AXJ0054.8-7244 = SXP504 in the Small Magellanic Cloud. This source was detected by Chandra on 04 Jul 2002 and subsequently observed by XMM-Newton on 18 Dec 2003. The source is coincident with an Optical Gravitational Lensing (OGLE) object in the lightcurves of which several optical outburst peaks are visible at ~ 268 day intervals. Timing analysis shows a period of 268.6 +/- 0.1 days at > 99% significance. Archival Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data for the 504s pulse-period has revealed detections which correspond closely with predicted or actual peaks in the optical data. The relationship between this orbital period and the pulse period of 504s is within the normal variance found in the Corbet diagram.Comment: Accepted by MNRAS. 1 LATEX page. 4 figure

    The Orbital Solution and Spectral Classification of the High-Mass X-Ray Binary IGR J01054-7253 in the Small Magellanic Cloud

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    We present X-ray and optical data on the Be/X-ray binary (BeXRB) pulsar IGR J01054-7253 = SXP11.5 in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of this source in a large X-ray outburst reveal an 11.483 +/- 0.002s pulse period and show both the accretion driven spin-up of the neutron star and the motion of the neutron star around the companion through Doppler shifting of the spin period. Model fits to these data suggest an orbital period of 36.3 +/- 0.4d and Pdot of (4.7 +/- 0.3) x 10^{-10} ss^{-1}. We present an orbital solution for this system, making it one of the best described BeXRB systems in the SMC. The observed pulse period, spin-up and X-ray luminosity of SXP11.5 in this outburst are found to agree with the predictions of neutron star accretion theory. Timing analysis of the long-term optical light curve reveals a periodicity of 36.70 +/- 0.03d, in agreement with the orbital period found from the model fit to the X-ray data. Using blue-end spectroscopic observations we determine the spectral type of the counterpart to be O9.5-B0 IV-V. This luminosity class is supported by the observed V-band magnitude. Using optical and near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy, we study the circumstellar environment of the counterpart in the months after the X-ray outburst.Comment: 12 pages, 13 figures and 3 tables. This paper has been accepted for publication in MNRA
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