48 research outputs found

    Byrsonima intermedia A Juss partitions promote gastroprotection against peptic ulcers and improve healing through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities

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    Byrsonima intermedia is a species of bush popularly used to treat gastrointestinal disorders, such as gastric ulcers, gastritis, and diarrhea. Previous studies have revealed that the methanolic crude extract of B. intermedia leaves has gastroprotective and healing properties. In this new study, we specifically investigated two purified partitions, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water (AcoAq), obtained from the crude extract to characterize the antiulcer effects of these two partitions and the mechanisms of action of this medicinal plant. The healing effects of these partitions on the gastric and duodenal mucosa were assessed after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) or acetic acidinduced injury. The involvement of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and glutathione (GSH) levels were determined. The antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori was evaluated using microdilution methods. The phytochemical analysis of AcoAq revealed a predominance of oligomeric proanthocyanidins and galloyl quinic esters, whereas EtOAc was found to contain concentrated flavonoids. Both partitions led to a significant reduction in gastric lesions, but AcoAq was more effective than EtOAc with regard to anti-Helicobacter pylori activity in addition to protecting the gastric mucosa against ethanol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and duodenal mucosal damage induced by cysteamine. Additionally, both partitions were associated with a significant increase in gastric and duodenal healing and increased gastric mucosal GSH content after damage induced by acetic acid. On the other hand, after 6 days of treatment, EtOAc was more effective than AcoAq in ameliorating gastric damage upon initiation of the gastric I/ R, which was accompanied by a significant reduction in the activity of gastric mucosal MPO, IL 1-beta and TNF-alpha, as well as an elevation in IL-10 and GSH content. These results demonstrate that the oligomeric proanthocyanidins and galloyl quinic esters present in AcoAq were more effective in the prevention of gastric and duodenal ulcers due to the antioxidant effects of these compounds, whereas the flavonoids present in EtOAc were more effective due to their anti-inflammatory activity on the gastric and duodenal tissue. All these results confirm that the rich phytochemical diversity of B. intermedia contributes to the pharmacological actions of this medicinal plant on the gastrointestinal tract in addition to its activity against H. pylori11111121123CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal e Nível SuperiorCNPQ - Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológiconão tem305570/2012-92009/52237-

    The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of the Methanolic Extract and Fractions from Davilla elliptica St. Hil. (Dilleniaceae) on Bothrops jararaca Envenomation

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    Inflammation and haemorrhage are the main characteristics of tissue injury in botropic envenomation. Although some studies have shown that anti-venom prevents systemic reactions, it is not efficient in preventing tissue injury at the site of the bite. Therefore, this work was undertaken to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract and fractions from D. elliptica and to evaluate the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in this process. Effects of the extract and fractions from D. elliptica were evaluated using a carrageenan-induced paw oedema model in rats, and leukocyte rolling was visualized by intravital. The quantification of MMPs activities (MMP-2 and MMP-9) extracted from the dermis of mice treated with extract and fractions alone or incubated with venom was determined by zymographic analyses. Our results show that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of fractions significantly reduced paw oedema after the carrageenan challenge. Treatment with the tannins fraction also resulted in considerable inhibition of the rolling of leukocytes and this fraction was able to decrease the activation of MMP-9. These results confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract and tannins fraction of D. elliptica and showed that the dermonecrosis properties of B. jararaca venom might be mediated through the inhibition of MMP-9 activity.Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq

    Prospection and Evaluation of (Hemi) Cellulolytic Enzymes Using Untreated and Pretreated Biomasses in Two Argentinean Native Termites

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    Saccharum officinarum bagasse (common name: sugarcane bagasse) and Pennisetum purpureum (also known as Napier grass) are among the most promising feedstocks for bioethanol production in Argentina and Brazil. In this study, both biomasses were assessed before and after acid pretreatment and following hydrolysis with Nasutitermes aquilinus andCortaritermes fulviceps termite gut digestome. The chemical composition analysis of the biomasses after diluted acid pretreatment showed that the hemicellulose fraction was partially removed. The (hemi) cellulolytic activities were evaluated in bacterial culture supernatantsof termite gut homogenates grown in treated and untreated biomasses. In all cases, we detected significantly higher endoglucanase and xylanase activities using pretreated biomasses compared to untreated biomasses, carboxymethylcellulose and xylan. Several protein bands with (hemi) cellulolytic activity were detected in zymograms and two-dimensionalgel electrophoresis. Some proteins of these bands or spots were identified as xylanolytic peptides by mass spectrometry. Finally, the diversity of cultured cellulolytic bacterial endosymbionts associated to both Argentinean native termite species was analyzed. This study describes, for the first time, bacterial endosymbionts and endogenous (hemi) cellulases of two Argentinean native termites as well as their potential application in degradation of lignocellulosic biomass for bioethanol production.Fil: Ben Guerrero, Emiliano. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria. Centro de Investigaci√≥n en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agron√≥micas. Instituto de Biotecnolog√≠a; ArgentinaFil: Arneodo Larochette, Joel Demi√°n. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas; Argentina. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria. Centro de Investigaci√≥n en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agron√≥micas. Instituto de Microbiolog√≠a y Zoolog√≠a Agr√≠cola; ArgentinaFil: Bombarda Campanha, Raquel. Ministerio da Agricultura Pecuaria e Abastecimento de Brasil. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria; BrasilFil: Oliveira, Patr√≠cia Abr√£o de. Ministerio da Agricultura Pecuaria e Abastecimento de Brasil. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria; BrasilFil: Labate, M√īnica T. Veneziano. Universidade de Sao Paulo; BrasilFil: Cataldi, Tha√≠s Regiani. Universidade de Sao Paulo; BrasilFil: Campos, Eleonora. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria. Centro de Investigaci√≥n en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agron√≥micas. Instituto de Biotecnolog√≠a; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas; ArgentinaFil: Cataldi, √Āngel Adri√°n. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria. Centro de Investigaci√≥n en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agron√≥micas. Instituto de Biotecnolog√≠a; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas; ArgentinaFil: Labate, Carlos A.. Universidade de Sao Paulo; BrasilFil: Rodrigues, Clenilson Martins. Ministerio da Agricultura Pecuaria e Abastecimento de Brasil. Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria; BrasilFil: Talia, Paola Monica. Instituto Nacional de Tecnolog√≠a Agropecuaria. Centro de Investigaci√≥n en Ciencias Veterinarias y Agron√≥micas. Instituto de Biotecnolog√≠a; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient√≠ficas y T√©cnicas; Argentin

    Desenvolvimento de sensores baseados em fibra óptica afunilada para monitoramento ambiental

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    The monitoring of environmental parameters is important in preserving the environment. The development of technologically advanced systems for measuring physical parameters allows the early detection of harmful environmental factors. For example, refractive index and temperature measurement systems can detect thermal and chemical pollution in rivers water. Curvature or tilt measurement is important in predicting natural phenomena that may cause damage to human beings, such as landslides and earthquakes. This thesis investigates sensors based on tapered optical fiber for monitoring environmental parameters. The investigated technology is based on standard single-mode optical fiber with tapered section that makes use of the evanescent field to detect changes in the external environment, such as refractive index, temperature and curvature. This type of device is analyzed through numerical simulations and experimental measurements. The numerical modeling is performed using finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM). It is numerically and experimentally demonstrated that once tapered optical fiber Michelson interferometer is subjected to bending the sensitivity to refractive index change is enhanced in comparison with the not bent device. Experimental measurements indicate that this type of device has great potential as a temperature sensor. Numerical results, based on FD-BPM, indicate that it is possible to optimize the taper parameters in optical fiber to improve its sensitivity to bending in terms of transmitted power.CAPES - Coordena√ß√£o de Aperfei√ßoamento de Pessoal de N√≠vel SuperiorCNPq - Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient√≠fico e Tecnol√≥gicoO monitoramento de par√Ęmetros ambientais √© importante na preserva√ß√£o do meio ambiente. O desenvolvimento de sistemas tecnologicamente avan√ßados para a medi√ß√£o de par√Ęmetros f√≠sicos pode permitir a detec√ß√£o antecipada de fatores nocivos ao meio ambiente. Por exemplo, sistemas de medi√ß√£o de √≠ndice de refra√ß√£o e temperatura permitem detectar polui√ß√£o t√©rmica e qu√≠mica na √°gua de rios. Medi√ß√£o de curvatura ou inclina√ß√£o √© importante na previs√£o de fen√īmenos naturais que possam causar danos ao ser humano, tais como deslizamentos de encostas e sismos. Essa tese investiga sensores baseados em fibra √≥ptica afunilada para monitoramento de par√Ęmetros ambientais. A tecnologia investigada √© baseada em fibra √≥ptica monomodo padr√£o com se√ß√£o afunilada que faz uso do campo evanescente para detectar altera√ß√Ķes no ambiente externo, tais como √≠ndice de refra√ß√£o, temperatura e curvatura. Esse tipo de dispositivo √© analisado atrav√©s de simula√ß√Ķes num√©ricas e medidas experimentais. A modelagem num√©rica √© feita atrav√©s do m√©todo de propaga√ß√£o de feixe por diferen√ßas finitas (FD-BPM, finite difference beam propagation method). √Č comprovado num√©rica e experimentalmente que o interfer√īmetro de Michelson em fibra √≥ptica afunilada submetida √† curvatura apresenta uma intensifica√ß√£o na sensibilidade √† varia√ß√£o de √≠ndice de refra√ß√£o em compara√ß√£o com o dispositivo n√£o curvado. Medidas experimentais indicam que esse tipo de dispositivo tem tamb√©m grande potencial como sensor de temperatura. Resultados num√©ricos, baseados no FD-BPM, indicam que √© poss√≠vel otimizar os par√Ęmetros do afunilamento na fibra √≥ptica para melhorar sua sensibilidade √† curvatura em termos de pot√™ncia transmitida

    ANTIDIARRHEAL MECHANISM AND IONIC PROFILE OF CARPOLOBIA LUTEA ETHANOLIC STEM-BARK EXTRACT IN RATS.

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    Background: The stem-bark extract of Carpolobia lutea (Polygalaceae), used in ethno-medicine as anti-diarrhea was pharmacologically evaluated. This was the first report of assessment of the ethanolic stem extract (ESE), of C. lutea as anti-diarrhoeal agent in rats. The anti-diarrhoeal effects, acute toxicity and ionic profile are investigated and reported. Materials and Methods: The acute toxicity was established using Lock‚Äôs method. The anti-diarrhoeal effects were demonstrated using castor oil-induced diarrheal and fluid accumulation and its effect on normal intestinal transit. The mechanism elucidated using yohimbine, isosorbide dinitrate, and diphenoxylate. The elemental and ionic profile of ESE was established using inductively coupled argon-plasma emission spectrometer and potentiometric titration respectively. The finger print of ESE was revealed by Jasco (Tokyo, Japan), HPLC and active compounds by phytochemical screening using standard procedure. Results: The LD50 obtained is 866.025 mg/kg (i.p). The doses of 43.3, 86.6, and 173.2 mg/kg of ESE showed inhibition of castor oil‚Äďinduced diarrheal (

    Characterization of Proanthocyanidins from Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G. Don. (Fabaceae) by Flow Injection Analysis ‚ÄĒ Electrospray Ionization Ion Trap Tandem Mass Spectrometry and Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

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    The present study investigates the chemical composition of the African plant Parkia biglobosa (Fabaceae) roots and barks by Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization and Direct Injection Tandem Mass Spectrometry analysis. Mass spectral data indicated that B-type oligomers are present, namely procyanidins and prodelphinidins, with their gallate and glucuronide derivatives, some of them in different isomeric forms. The analysis evidenced the presence of up to 40 proanthocyanidins, some of which are reported for the first time. In this study, the antiradical activity of extracts of roots and barks from Parkia biglobosa was evaluated using DPPH method and they showed satisfactory activities

    Modelagem termodin√Ęmica por extra√ß√£o por solvente de metais divalentes em meio sulfato usando D2EHPA

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    The extraction of divalent metals (Mn2+, Ni2+, Co2+ and Cu2+) in the system MSO4 - H2SO4 - H2O - D2EHPA in isoparaffin (17/21) was studied by a thermodynamic model based on chemical equilibria with mass and charge balance equations. The activity coefficients of all solutes in the aqueous phase were calculated by Davies equation. By applying this model, the equilibrium concentrations of solutes were calculated from de concentration of divalent metals and pH. The predicted distribution coefficients for the divalents metals were in good agreement with experimental results

    A Cost-Benefit Analysis on Modulation Formats for 40-Gb/s Optical Communication Systems

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    This article discusses possible approaches for optical network capacity upgrade by considering the use of different modulation formats at 40 Gb/s. First, a performance evaluation is carried out regarding tolerance to three impairments: spectral narrowing due to filter cascading, chromatic dispersion, and self-phase modulation. Next, a cost-benefit analysis is conducted, considering the specific optoelectronic components required for the optical transmitter/receiver configuration of each format.Fundacao de Apoio a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP)[06/045464-4]Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq)Fundo para o Desenvolvimento Tecnologico das Telecomunicacoes (FUNTTEL), Brazi

    Characterization of gallotannins from Astronium species by flow injection analysis-electrospray ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

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    The species Astronium urundeuva (Allemao) Engl. and Astronium graveolens Jacq., which are used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat allergies, inflammation, diarrhea and ulcers, were investigated for their composition. The aim of this study was to define a rapid and reliable analytical approach, based on the flow-injection analysis-electrospray ionization-ion trap-tandem mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization- time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-ToF-MS), to investigate the full range of hydrolyzable tannins present in the extracts of these Astronium species. The MALDI-ToF-MS analysis allowed us to ascertain the presence of hydrolysable tannins in both Astronium species as a series of gallotannins with degrees of polymerization of 7 to 13 galloyl units. Moreover, the analysis by FIA-ESI-IT-MS-MS, as well as confirming this result and chemically defining gallotannins as galloylglucose compounds, highlighted the presence of further classes of hydrolysable tannins, such as hexahydrodiphenoyl esters of glucose and some gallic acid derivatives, providing information about their structure by a careful study of their fragmentation patterns. Finally, the evaluation of the number of positional isomers of gallotannins occurring in both Astronium species was obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-IT-MS). This is the first mass spectrometric evidence relating to the existence of gallotannins in Astronium genus
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