365 research outputs found

    Disembodied, dehumanised but safe and feasible : the social-spatial flow of a pandemic OSCE

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    Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank all those who took part in the OSCE under study and who contributed their time to be interviewed.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Follow the policy : An actor network theory study of widening participation to medicine in two countries

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    CKNOWLEDGEMENTS Our thanks to all those who took part in this research and to colleagues at the Universities of Aberdeen and Curtin for their assistance with participant recruitment. Our thanks also to the Aberdeen-Curtin Alliance, which funded the PhD programme of work of which this study is part.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Examining the diversity of MRCS examiners

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    Acknowledgements The authors would like to acknowledge Gregory Ayre from the Intercollegiate Committee for Basic Surgical Examinations for his support during this project. Funding Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland. Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow and Royal College of Surgeons of England.Peer reviewedPublisher PD

    Interprofessional collaboration (or lack thereof) between faculty and learning technologists in the creation of digital learning

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    Abstract Background As digital learning becomes more prevalent and important in health professions education, learning technologists play increasingly central roles in designing and delivering learning materials. However, little is understood about the process by which learning technologists have integrated into the existing teaching and learning ecosystem, and it seems that they remain marginal and undervalued. Our aim in this paper was therefore to examine the process of interprofessional co-development of course materials as experienced by educators and learning technologists. Methods Our approach was qualitative, using individual semi-structured interviews (conducted between July 2021 to May 2022) to explore the working relationship between faculty and learning technologists. Transcripts were analysed abductively. Results We found that the attitudes of both faculty and learning technologists towards collaborating to drive digital adoption in health professions education fell into two main themes: “embrace” and “replace” – and “conflict”, which we present as a third theme. Our results revealed that faculty did not take an active and agentic role in developing their digital practices in respect of education delivery. Learning technologists positioned themselves as a resource to support faculty’s knowledge and skill gap in digital competence. There was an obvious power differential between the two groups: learning technologists lacked agency and seemed in the position of servants to faculty masters. This created barriers to effective collaboration. Conclusions By examining the process of co-development of course materials by faculty and learning technologists, we open up a space to examine the social, relational and organisational complexities associated with interprofessional collaboration in digital health professions education. Our study also has important implications for guiding educational policy to better position learning technologists to effectively collaborate with faculty and realise the potential of digital health professions education

    Society of Family Planning Clinical Recommendation: Emergency Contraception

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    Emergency contraception (EC) refers to several contraceptive options that can be used within a few days after unprotected or under protected intercourse or sexual assault to reduce the risk of pregnancy. Current EC options available in the United States include the copper intrauterine device (IUD), levonorgestrel (LNG) 52 mg IUD, oral LNG (such as Plan B One-Step, My Way, Take Action), and oral ulipristal acetate (UPA) (ella). These clinical recommendations review the indications, effectiveness, safety, and side effects of emergency contraceptive methods; considerations for the use of EC by specific patient populations and in specific clinical circumstances and current barriers to emergency contraceptive access. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of LNG IUDs for emergency contraceptive use; address the effects of repeated use of UPA at different times in the same menstrual cycle; assess the impact on ovulation of initiating or reinitiating different regimens of regular hormonal contraception following UPA use; and elucidate effective emergency contraceptive pill options by body mass indices or weight

    Robust, defensible, and fair: the AMEE guide to selection into medical school: AMEE Guide No. 153

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    Selection is the first assessment of medical education and training. Medical schools must select from a pool of academically successful applicants and ensure that the way in which they choose future clinicians is robust, defensible, fair to all who apply and cost-effective. However, there is no comprehensive and evidence-informed guide to help those tasked with setting up or rejuvenating their local selection process. To address this gap, our guide draws on the latest research, international case studies and consideration of common dilemmas to provide practical guidance for designing, implementing and evaluating an effective medical school selection system. We draw on a model from the field of instructional design to frame the many different activities involved in doing so: the ADDIE model. ADDIE provides a systematic framework of Analysis (of the outcomes to be achieved by the selection process, and the barriers and facilitators to achieving these), Design (what tools and content are needed so the goals of selection are achieved), Development (what materials and resources are needed and available), Implementation (plan [including piloting], do study and adjust) and Evaluation (quality assurance is embedded throughout but the last step involves extensive evaluation of the entire process and its outcomes).Submitted/Accepted versio

    Artificial intelligence for diabetic retinopathy in low-income and middle-income countries: a scoping review.

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    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness globally. There is growing evidence to support the use of artificial intelligence (AI) in diabetic eye care, particularly for screening populations at risk of sight loss from DR in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) where resources are most stretched. However, implementation into clinical practice remains limited. We conducted a scoping review to identify what AI tools have been used for DR in LMICs and to report their performance and relevant characteristics. 81 articles were included. The reported sensitivities and specificities were generally high providing evidence to support use in clinical practice. However, the majority of studies focused on sensitivity and specificity only and there was limited information on cost, regulatory approvals and whether the use of AI improved health outcomes. Further research that goes beyond reporting sensitivities and specificities is needed prior to wider implementation

    'But what if you miss something …?': factors that influence medical student consideration of cost in decision making

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    Context: Cost-conscious care is critical for healthcare sustainability but evidence suggests that most doctors do not consider cost in their clinical decision making. A critical step in changing this is understanding the barriers to encouraging behaviours and attitudes related to cost-conscious care. We therefore conducted a qualitative study to address the research question: what factors influence consideration of cost in emergency medicine (ED) clinical decision making? Methods: This was a qualitative focus group study using patient vignettes to explore attitudes towards cost-conscious clinical decision making. Participants were Year 4 and Year 5 medical students from Singapore, a country with a fee-for-service healthcare system. After a data-driven initial data analysis, and to make sense of a multitude of factors impacting on cost conscious care, we selected Fishbein’s integrative model of behavioural prediction to underpin secondary data analysis. Results: Via four focus groups with 21 participants, we identified five main themes relevant to the integrative model of behavioural prediction. These were: attitudes towards considering cost when managing a patient (e.g., “better safe than sorry”); normative beliefs (e.g., doing what others do, perceptions of patient wishes); efficacy beliefs (e.g., no authority to take decisions or challenge); skills and knowledge (e.g., little knowledge of costs), and environmental constraints (e.g., the nature of the healthcare system). Discussion: Medical students do not consider cost in their clinical decision making due to numerous factors, of which lack of knowledge of costs is but one. While some of the factors identified reflect those found in previous studies with residents and fully-trained staff, and in other contexts, theory driven analysis added value in that it facilitated a richer exploration of why students do not consider cost in clinical decision making. Our findings provide insight to inform how best to engage and empower educators and learners in teaching and learning about cost-conscious care.Nanyang Technological UniversityPublished versionThis research was supported by a grant from the Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine’s Medical Education Research and Scholarship Unit (MERSU), Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Award number: 03INP001104A630

    Sampling and recruiting participants

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    Learning objectivesBy the end of this chapter, you should be able to:· Distinguish between a population and a sample.· Explain the importance of appropriate and adequate sampling in quantitative and qualitative research.· Recognise the various types of quantitative sampling and the importance of balancing rigour and practicality.· Discuss the various types of qualitative sampling and the principles of sample size estimation in qualitative research.· Choose from common recruitment approaches for quantitative and qualitative research projects
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