339 research outputs found

    Current state-of-the-art and gaps in platform trials: 10 things you should know, insights from EU-PEARL

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    Summary: Platform trials bring the promise of making clinical research more efficient and more patient centric. While their use has become more widespread, including their prominent role during the COVID-19 pandemic response, broader adoption of platform trials has been limited by the lack of experience and tools to navigate the critical upfront planning required to launch such collaborative studies. The European Union-Patient-cEntric clinicAl tRial pLatform (EU-PEARL) initiative has produced new methodologies to expand the use of platform trials with an overarching infrastructure and services embedded into Integrated Research Platforms (IRPs), in collaboration with patient representatives and through consultation with U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency stakeholders. In this narrative review, we discuss the outlook for platform trials in Europe, including challenges related to infrastructure, design, adaptations, data sharing and regulation. Documents derived from the EU-PEARL project, alongside a literature search including PubMed and relevant grey literature (e.g., guidance from regulatory agencies and health technology agencies) were used as sources for a multi-stage collaborative process through which the 10 more important points based on lessons drawn from the EU-PEARL project were developed and summarised as guidance for the setup of platform trials. We conclude that early involvement of critical stakeholder such as regulatory agencies or patients are critical steps in the implementation and later acceptance of platform trials. Addressing these gaps will be critical for attaining the full potential of platform trials for patients. Funding: Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking with support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and EFPIA

    Ischemic stroke caused by large-artery atherosclerosis: a red flag for subclinical coronary artery disease

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    BackgroundThe coronary calcium score (CAC) measured on chest computerized tomography is a risk marker of cardiac events and mortality. We compared CAC scores in two multiethnic groups without symptomatic coronary artery disease: subjects in the chronic phase after stroke or transient ischemic attack and at least one symptomatic stenosis ≥50% in the carotid or vertebrobasilar territories (Groupathero) and a control group (Groupcontrol).MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, Groupathero included two subgroups: GroupExtraorIntra, with stenoses in either cervical or intracranial arteries, and GroupExtra&Intra, with stenoses in at least one cervical and one intracranial artery. Groupcontrol had no history of prior stroke/transient ischemic attacks and no stenoses ≥50% in cervical or intracranial arteries. Age and sex were comparable in all groups. Frequencies of CAC ≥100 and CAC > 0 were compared between Groupathero and Groupcontrol, as well as between GroupExtraorIntr, GroupExtra&Intra, and Groupcontrol, with bivariate logistic regressions. Multivariate analyses were also performed.ResultsA total of 120 patients were included: 80 in Groupathero and 40 in Groupcontrol. CAC >0 was significantly more frequent in Groupathero (85%) than Groupcontrol (OR, 4.19; 1.74–10.07; p = 0.001). Rates of CAC ≥100 were not significantly different between Groupathero and Groupcontrol but were significantly greater in GroupExtra&Intra (n = 13) when compared to Groupcontrol (OR 4.67; 1.21–18.04; p = 0.025). In multivariate-adjusted analyses, “Groupathero” and “GroupExtra&Intra” were significantly associated with CAC.ConclusionThe frequency of coronary calcification was higher in subjects with stroke caused by large-artery atherosclerosis than in controls

    Data_Sheet_1_Ischemic stroke caused by large-artery atherosclerosis: a red flag for subclinical coronary artery disease.docx

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    BackgroundThe coronary calcium score (CAC) measured on chest computerized tomography is a risk marker of cardiac events and mortality. We compared CAC scores in two multiethnic groups without symptomatic coronary artery disease: subjects in the chronic phase after stroke or transient ischemic attack and at least one symptomatic stenosis ≥50% in the carotid or vertebrobasilar territories (Groupathero) and a control group (Groupcontrol).MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, Groupathero included two subgroups: GroupExtraorIntra, with stenoses in either cervical or intracranial arteries, and GroupExtra&Intra, with stenoses in at least one cervical and one intracranial artery. Groupcontrol had no history of prior stroke/transient ischemic attacks and no stenoses ≥50% in cervical or intracranial arteries. Age and sex were comparable in all groups. Frequencies of CAC ≥100 and CAC > 0 were compared between Groupathero and Groupcontrol, as well as between GroupExtraorIntr, GroupExtra&Intra, and Groupcontrol, with bivariate logistic regressions. Multivariate analyses were also performed.ResultsA total of 120 patients were included: 80 in Groupathero and 40 in Groupcontrol. CAC >0 was significantly more frequent in Groupathero (85%) than Groupcontrol (OR, 4.19; 1.74–10.07; p = 0.001). Rates of CAC ≥100 were not significantly different between Groupathero and Groupcontrol but were significantly greater in GroupExtra&Intra (n = 13) when compared to Groupcontrol (OR 4.67; 1.21–18.04; p = 0.025). In multivariate-adjusted analyses, “Groupathero” and “GroupExtra&Intra” were significantly associated with CAC.ConclusionThe frequency of coronary calcification was higher in subjects with stroke caused by large-artery atherosclerosis than in controls.</p

    Evaluation of a quality improvement intervention to reduce anastomotic leak following right colectomy (EAGLE): pragmatic, batched stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized trial in 64 countries

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    Background Anastomotic leak affects 8 per cent of patients after right colectomy with a 10-fold increased risk of postoperative death. The EAGLE study aimed to develop and test whether an international, standardized quality improvement intervention could reduce anastomotic leaks. Methods The internationally intended protocol, iteratively co-developed by a multistage Delphi process, comprised an online educational module introducing risk stratification, an intraoperative checklist, and harmonized surgical techniques. Clusters (hospital teams) were randomized to one of three arms with varied sequences of intervention/data collection by a derived stepped-wedge batch design (at least 18 hospital teams per batch). Patients were blinded to the study allocation. Low- and middle-income country enrolment was encouraged. The primary outcome (assessed by intention to treat) was anastomotic leak rate, and subgroup analyses by module completion (at least 80 per cent of surgeons, high engagement; less than 50 per cent, low engagement) were preplanned. Results A total 355 hospital teams registered, with 332 from 64 countries (39.2 per cent low and middle income) included in the final analysis. The online modules were completed by half of the surgeons (2143 of 4411). The primary analysis included 3039 of the 3268 patients recruited (206 patients had no anastomosis and 23 were lost to follow-up), with anastomotic leaks arising before and after the intervention in 10.1 and 9.6 per cent respectively (adjusted OR 0.87, 95 per cent c.i. 0.59 to 1.30; P = 0.498). The proportion of surgeons completing the educational modules was an influence: the leak rate decreased from 12.2 per cent (61 of 500) before intervention to 5.1 per cent (24 of 473) after intervention in high-engagement centres (adjusted OR 0.36, 0.20 to 0.64; P &lt; 0.001), but this was not observed in low-engagement hospitals (8.3 per cent (59 of 714) and 13.8 per cent (61 of 443) respectively; adjusted OR 2.09, 1.31 to 3.31). Conclusion Completion of globally available digital training by engaged teams can alter anastomotic leak rates. Registration number: NCT04270721 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov)

    P2X7 receptor contributes to long-term neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in sepsis-surviving mice

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    Introduction: sepsis is defined as a multifactorial debilitating condition with high risks of death. The intense inflammatory response causes deleterious effects on the brain, a condition called sepsis-associated encephalopathy. Neuroinflammation or pathogen recognition are able to stress cells, resulting in ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) release and P2X7 receptor activation, which is abundantly expressed in the brain. The P2X7 receptor contributes to chronic neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory diseases; however, its function in long-term neurological impairment caused by sepsis remains unclear. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the effects of P2X7 receptor activation in neuroinflammatory and behavioral changes in sepsis-surviving mice. Methods: sepsis was induced in wild-type (WT), P2X7−/− , and BBG (Brilliant Blue G)-treated mice by cecal ligation and perforation (CLP). On the thirteenth day after the surgery, the cognitive function of mice was assessed using the novel recognition object and Water T-maze tests. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, microglial and astrocytic activation markers, and cytokine production were also evaluated. Results: Initially, we observed that both WT and P2X7−/− sepsis-surviving mice showed memory impairment 13 days after surgery, once they did not differentiate between novel and familiar objects. Both groups of animals presented increased AChE activity in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. However, the absence of P2X7 prevented partly this increase in the cerebral cortex. Likewise, P2X7 absence decreased ionized calcium-binding protein 1 (Iba−1 ) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) upregulation in the cerebral cortex of sepsis-surviving animals. There was an increase in GFAP protein levels in the cerebral cortex but not in the hippocampus of both WT and P2X7−/− sepsis-surviving animals. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of P2X7 receptor attenuated the production of Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and Interleukin-10 (IL-10). Conclusion: the modulation of the P2X7 receptor in sepsis-surviving animals may reduce neuroinflammation and prevent cognitive impairment due to sepsisassociated encephalopathy, being considered an important therapeutic target

    Reperfusion therapy for acute ischemic stroke: where are we in 2023?

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    Over the last three decades, stroke care has undergone significant transformations mainly driven by the introduction of reperfusion therapy and the organization of systems of care. Patients receiving treatment through a well-structured stroke service have a much higher chance of favorable outcomes, thereby decreasing both disability and mortality. In this article, we reviewed the scientific evidence for stroke reperfusion therapy, including thrombolysis and thrombectomy, and its implementation in the public health system in Brazil

    Study of charmonium and charmonium-like contributions in B+J/ψηK+B^+ \rightarrow J/\psi \eta K^+ decays

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    A study of B+J/ψηK+B^+ \rightarrow J/\psi \eta K^+ decays, followed by J/ψμ+μJ/\psi \rightarrow \mu^+ \mu^- and ηγγ\eta \rightarrow \gamma \gamma, is performed using a dataset collected with the LHCb detector in proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7, 8 and 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 9 fb1^{-1}. The J/psiηJ/psi\eta mass spectrum is investigated for contributions from charmonia and charmonium-like states. Evidence is found for the B+(ψ2(3823)J/ψη)K+B^+\rightarrow \left( \psi_2(3823) \rightarrow J/\psi \eta \right) K^+ and B+(ψ(4040)J/ψη)K+B^+\rightarrow \left( \psi(4040) \rightarrow J/\psi \eta \right) K^+ decays with significance of 3.4 and 4.7~standard deviations, respectively. This constitutes the~first~evidence for the ψ2(3823)J/ψη\psi_2(3823) \rightarrow J/\psi \eta decay

    Observation of the B0D0K+πB^0\rightarrow\overline{D}^{*0}K^{+}\pi^{-} and Bs0D0Kπ+B_s^0\rightarrow\overline{D}^{*0}K^{-}\pi^{+} decays