5 research outputs found

    Functional analysis of honey bee genes affected <i>N. ceranae</i> parasitism.

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    <p>The lists of genes regulated by <i>N. ceranae</i> parasitism were analyzed for statistical enrichment of associated Gene Ontology (GO) and InterPro (IPR) terms (<i>p</i><0.005), relative to the representation of these terms for all expressed genes.</p

    Activity of antioxidant enzymes in the midguts of bees challenged by <i>N. ceranae</i>.

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    <p>Differences in enzymatic activity of A) superoxide dismutase (SOD), B) glutathione reductase (GR), C) glutathione peroxydase (GP) and D) glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were estimated by a Mann-Whitney U test. Means±SE are shown for 4 pools of 3 midguts per replicate (<i>n</i> = 3 replicates, 36 bees total/treatment). * and ** denote significant differences at <i>p</i><0.05 and <i>p</i><0.01, respectively.</p

    Relative expression (mean ± s.e.) of candidate genes important for apoptosis in <i>Nosema</i> infected honeybees.

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    <p><i>Nosema</i> sensitive (SN, solid circles) and tolerant (TN, solid squares) honeybees infected with 10<sup>5</sup><i>N</i>. <i>ceranae</i> spores, and their controls uninfected (SC, open circles and TC, open squares), were sampled at 1 day (green) and 6 days (blue) after inoculation. The genes JNK/<i>bsk</i> (Jun N–terminal kinase/ <i>basket</i>), <i>p53</i> (<i>tumor protein p53-like</i>), <i>iap–2</i> (<i>inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2;</i> predicted homologous gene to <i>Diap–1</i> in <i>D</i>. <i>melanogaster</i>), <i>casp–2</i> (<i>caspase–2–like; homologous gene to Dcp–1</i>), <i>casp–10</i> (<i>caspase–10–like; homologous gene to Dredd</i>) were predicted from <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i>. Sample sizes are ranging between six and ten pools of three individual honeybee midguts (see also <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0140174#pone.0140174.s003" target="_blank">S3 Table</a>). Significance between treatment groups ***, <i>P</i> < 0.001.</p

    Mortality induced by <i>N. ceranae</i>.

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    <p>Data show the percentages of surviving bees per replicate (<i>n</i> = 3) and per day in cages composed of 30 bees each (90 bees total/treatment). Cages with <i>N. ceranae</i> infected bees achieved one-hundred percent of mortality at day 14 post infection, while in control groups mortality remained low.</p

    Network of genes downregulated by <i>Nosema</i> in the bee gut.

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    <p>The composite functional association network derived from different genomic and proteomic data sources was generated with GeneMania using the <i>Drosophila</i> orthologs of bee genes. Physical and genetic interactions between genes are indicated by dot and solid lines, respectively. Grey and white circles represent implemented genes (known genes affected by <i>Nosema</i>) and new genes predicted to be functionally associated to the known genes, respectively. The size of the predicted gene circle provides an indication of its interaction score. Except <i>ETS-domain lacking</i> (<i>edl</i>), the predicted genes <i>roundabout</i> (<i>robo</i>), <i>longitudinal</i> (<i>lola</i>), <i>Cyclin D</i> (<i>CycD</i>), <i>Optix</i>, <i>kekkon-1</i> (<i>kek1</i>) had bee orthologs: GB17658, GB12094, GB14028, GB16761 and GB17490.</p