325 research outputs found

    Peut-on mettre la forĂȘt borĂ©ale au service de la lutte aux changements climatiques?

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    Planter des arbres peut-il nous aider Ă  rĂ©soudre la crise climatique? Sans doute, mais jusqu’à quel point

    Performance of seedlings of four coniferous species planted in two boreal lichen woodlands with contrasting soil fertility

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    Lichen woodlands (LWs) are persistent unproductive areas of the Canadian boreal forests whose afforestation may potentially remove significant amounts of anthropogenic C from the atmosphere. The choice of species to be planted is nevertheless uncertain given the particular pedoclimatic conditions prevailing in this habitat as well as the rapidly changing climate at northern latitudes. In this study, we assessed the survival and the growth rates of four boreal coniferous species in two LWs with contrasting soil fertility. Five years after afforestation, survival rate was high for all species at both sites, ranging from 60 to 100 %. Tree height and diameter at stump height (DSH) were up to 60 % and 97 % higher at the LW with higher soil fertility, respectively. The height of jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.; JP) trees was on average 15 %, 56 % and 68 % higher than that of tamarack (Larix laricina [DuRoi] K. Koch; TK), black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] BSP; BS) and white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss; WS), respectively. There was a significant species × soil fertility interaction, reflecting a much higher growth difference between the two sites for JP than for the other species. Annual apical growth increased from one year to the other in JP, suggesting its ability to expand its root system and to acquire resources from the mineral soil rapidly after planting. The much larger photosynthetic biomass at the more fertile site was driven by a higher number of needles produced annually rather than by a higher mass of individual needles, which did not vary between sites. The photosynthetic biomass / woody biomass ratio was not significantly impacted by soil fertility. Overall, these results suggest that JP and TK may be good candidates for the afforestation of boreal LWs and that site selection is of crucial importance to optimize plantation productivity in the mid-term. Further studies must be conducted to assess the survival and the C sequestration potential of these species in the long-term

    Funding research using climate change mitigation: The case of the Carbone boréal research infrastructure

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    Since 1988, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has gathered research and produced reports to inform decision makers on climate change. Among crosscutting topics, ecosystem management and nature-based solutions (NBS) have received growing attention as they are readily available and relatively inexpensive. NBS are part of the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses economical sector [1]. While carbon prices can reach up to USD100 t-1 CO2-eq, greenhouse gas (GHG) land-based mitigation can be achieved for less in agriculture (e.g. soil carbon management, agroforestry, soil biochar addition), forestry (e.g. afforestation, reforestation, decreased deforestation) and using other ecosystems (e.g. peatland and wetland restoration) [1]. NBS have the potential to reduce GHG emissions by 8–14 Gt CO2-eq yr-1 between 2020–2050 [1], which represents 32–82% of the emission gap by 2030 to limit global warming between 1.5–2°C by 2100 compared with the preindustrial era [2]. In addition to CO2 removal from the atmosphere, NBS also render valuable ecosystem services such as biodiversity conservation, water and nutrient cycling regulation and soil preservation [3–6]. Several positive impacts on human well-being and sustainable development goals can also be achieved through NBS [1]

    Can the boreal forest be used to concretely fight climate change?

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    Can planting trees help us solve the climate crisis? Probably, but to what extent

    Is it possible to measure sustainable development?

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    Is it possible to measure sustainable development? Can we go beyond merely embracing virtuous principles and put the concept into use

    Natural regeneration potential and dynamics in boreal lichen woodlands of eastern Canada following soil scarification

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    Boreal lichen woodlands (LWs) are stable low tree-density zones of the Canadian boreal forest whose afforestation has been proposed as a way to create new C sinks and thus mitigate climate change. Planting operations in these remote areas are however costly and time-consuming, and may not be necessary when soil scarification is followed by dense natural regeneration. In the present study, we assessed the natural regeneration potential and dynamics in six boreal LWs of QuĂ©bec, Canada, 11 years after soil scarification. The number, size (height and stem diameter) and age of seedlings were measured in 2-4 sampling plots per site (18 plots in total). Our data show that scarification operations produced on average 1,400 m2 ha–1 of exposed mineral soil (scarification intensity of 14%) with, however, a large within-site variability. The natural regeneration was mainly composed of black spruce seedlings (> 95%), averaged ∌12,000 seedlings ha–1 across the six sites and significantly varied among sites, mostly due to the variation in scarification intensity. Seedling density averaged ∌9 seedlings m–2 of exposed mineral soil and increased with seed tree mean diameter at breast height (DBH) (R2 = 0.51; P < 0.05) but not with the density of seed trees, revealing the importance of old and large seed trees in natural regeneration success. Together, scarification intensity and the DBH of remaining seed trees explained ∌60% of the variation in natural regeneration density across the 18 sampled plots. The rate of establishment of seedlings was generally high – with on average 60% of the carrying capacity of the substrate being reached within three years following scarification – and increased with seed tree mean DBH (R2 = 0.77; P < 0.05). However, the growth rate of seedlings was very low. Eleven years after scarification, 60% of the seedlings were < 15 cm and the height of 10-yr-old seedlings averaged 27.5 cm. Thus, even though seedling establishment was successful, the biomass accumulated by the natural regeneration was negligible in the span of a decade. Therefore, the implementation of afforestation following scarification appears to be necessary to create significant C sinks in the midterm

    Mesurer le développement durable, est-ce possible ?

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    Peut-on mesurer le dĂ©veloppement durable? Peut-on l’opĂ©rationnaliser au-delĂ  des principes vertueux

    From aluminium industry waste to soil amendment for cash crops and fertiliser for lowbush blueberry

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    Rio Tinto's Aluminium division operates smelters in Canada, primarily in the Saguenay–Lac-Saint-Jean region in Quebec, where its entire aluminium production line generates two specific calcium sulphate (CaSO4) by-products. The aqua-catalysed hydrated lime (CHAC) is the by-product of the sulphur scrubber at the coke calciner plant, and the neutralised synthetic anhydrite (SA) is derived from the industrial processes of the chemical transformation of calcium fluoride into aluminium fluoride, which is used in the manufacture of electrolysis bath for aluminium production. Since 2015, several research projects have been developed at the Rio Tinto-Arvida Research and Development Center, in collaboration with local universities, to evaluate the potential of these by-products as a liming agent for various agroecosystems and as a certified calcium-rich fertiliser for lowbush blueberries, our regional flagship. The aim of this paper is to present the research and development programme that has led to the agricultural recycling of these two by-products

    Validation d’une procĂ©dure de dĂ©pistage du trouble de personnalitĂ© limite selon le ModĂšle alternatif pour les troubles de la personnalitĂ© du DSM-5

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    Objectifs La cinquiĂšme Ă©dition du Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux (DSM-5) inclut un ModĂšle alternatif pour les troubles de la personnalitĂ© (MATP), qui dĂ©finit la pathologie de la personnalitĂ© en s’appuyant sur 2 principaux critĂšres dimensionnels. Le critĂšre A correspond Ă  la sĂ©vĂ©ritĂ© du dysfonctionnement de la personnalitĂ© dans la sphĂšre du soi et dans la sphĂšre interpersonnelle, alors que le critĂšre B propose 5 domaines pathologiques de la personnalitĂ© se dĂ©clinant en 25 facettes. Six troubles spĂ©cifiques, incluant le trouble de personnalitĂ© limite (TPL), sont dĂ©finis dans le MATP sur la base des critĂšres A et B. Il existe toutefois trĂšs peu de donnĂ©es Ă  l’heure actuelle sur ces diagnostics tels qu’opĂ©rationnalisĂ©s dans le MATP. La prĂ©sente Ă©tude vise Ă  prĂ©senter des donnĂ©es quĂ©bĂ©coises sur cette rĂ©cente opĂ©rationnalisation du TPL. Plus spĂ©cifiquement, nous prĂ©senterons d’abord une procĂ©dure, basĂ©e sur des questionnaires autorĂ©vĂ©lĂ©s couvrant les 2 critĂšres principaux du MATP, permettant de gĂ©nĂ©rer le diagnostic. Puis, nous Ă©valuerons sa validité : a) en documentant la prĂ©valence du diagnostic dans un Ă©chantillon clinique ; b) en dĂ©terminant son degrĂ© de correspondance avec le diagnostic catĂ©goriel « traditionnel » du TPL et avec une mesure dimensionnelle de symptomatologie associĂ©e au trouble ; c) en prĂ©sentant des donnĂ©es de validitĂ© convergente avec des construits pertinents pour l’étude du TPL (impulsivitĂ©, agression) ; et d) en dĂ©terminant la validitĂ© incrĂ©mentielle de la procĂ©dure proposĂ©e par rapport Ă  une approche simplifiĂ©e oĂč seul le critĂšre B serait considĂ©rĂ©.MĂ©thode Les donnĂ©es de 287 patients recrutĂ©s dans le cadre de la dĂ©marche d’admission au Centre de traitement le Faubourg Saint-Jean du CIUSSS-Capitale-Nationale ont Ă©tĂ© analysĂ©es. Le diagnostic de TPL selon le MATP a Ă©tĂ© gĂ©nĂ©rĂ© Ă  partir de 2 questionnaires validĂ©s, dans leur version francophone, soit le Self and Interpersonal Functioning Scale (critĂšre A) et le Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Faceted Brief Form (critĂšre B).RĂ©sultats Le diagnostic de TPL, tel qu’opĂ©rationnalisĂ© par le MATP, prĂ©sentait une prĂ©valence de 39,7 % dans l’échantillon. Une correspondance modĂ©rĂ©e avec le diagnostic de TPL posĂ© par les cliniciens selon le modĂšle catĂ©goriel traditionnel du DSM-5 a Ă©tĂ© observĂ©e, de mĂȘme qu’une forte corrĂ©lation avec une mesure dimensionnelle de symptomatologie limite. L’analyse du rĂ©seau nomologique a rĂ©vĂ©lĂ© des corrĂ©lations Ă©levĂ©es et thĂ©oriquement attendues entre le trouble et des mesures d’agression et d’impulsivitĂ©. La procĂ©dure d’extraction du diagnostic, qui utilise les critĂšres A et B, montre une validitĂ© incrĂ©mentielle dans la prĂ©diction statistique des variables externes (symptomatologie limite, agression, impulsivitĂ©) par rapport Ă  une procĂ©dure simplifiĂ©e n’utilisant que le critĂšre B.Conclusions La procĂ©dure proposĂ©e pour gĂ©nĂ©rer le diagnostic de TPL selon la dĂ©finition du MATP gĂ©nĂšre des rĂ©sultats valides et pourrait permettre un dĂ©pistage du trouble selon cette conceptualisation contemporaine des pathologies de la personnalitĂ©.Objectives The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) includes an Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (DSM-5), which defines personality disorders based on two dimensional criteria. Criterion A corresponds to the severity of personality dysfunction in the areas of self and interpersonal functioning, while Criterion B comprises five pathological domains including a total of 25 facets. Six specific disorders, including borderline personality disorder (BPD), are defined in the AMPD based on Criteria A and B. However, there is currently very little data on these diagnoses as they are operationalized in the MATP. This study aims to present data on this recent operationalization of BPD. More specifically, we will first introduce a procedure, based on self-reported questionnaires covering the two main MATP criteria, implemented to generate the BPD diagnosis from the AMPD. Then, we will assess its validity (a) by documenting its prevalence in a clinical sample; (b) by determining its degree of correspondence with the “traditional” BPD categorical diagnosis and with a dimensional measure of borderline symptomatology; (c) by presenting convergent validity data with constructs relevant to the study of BPD (impulsivity, aggression); and (d) by determining the incremental validity of the proposed procedure in contrast with a simplified approach where only Criterion B would be considered.Method Data from 287 patients recruited as part of the admission process at the Centre de traitement le Faubourg Saint-Jean of the CIUSSS-Capitale-Nationale were analyzed. The BPD diagnosis from the MATP was generated based on two validated self-report questionnaires, in their French version, namely the Self and Interpersonal Functioning Scale (Criterion A) and the Personality Inventory for DSM-5-Faceted Brief Form (Criterion B).Results The BPD diagnosis, as operationalized in the AMPD, had a prevalence of 39.7% in the sample. A moderate fit with the clinician’s diagnosis of BPD according to the traditional DSM-5 categorical model was observed, as well as a strong correlation with a dimensional measure of borderline symptomatology. Nomological network analysis revealed high and theoretically expected correlations between the disorder and measures of aggression and impulsivity. The proposed diagnostic extraction procedure, which uses Criteria A and B, showed incremental validity in the statistical prediction of external variables (borderline symptomatology, aggression, impulsivity) compared to a simplified procedure using only Criterion B.Conclusions The proposed procedure for generating the BPD diagnosis according to the MATP definition yields promising results and could allow screening for the disorder based on this contemporary conceptualization of personality pathologies

    Violence conjugale commise et subie : profils personnologiques de personnes avec un trouble de personnalité limite

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    Objectif Les troubles de la personnalitĂ© et la violence conjugale (VC) sont deux problĂ©matiques reconnues comme des enjeux majeurs en santĂ© publique associĂ©es Ă  de graves rĂ©percussions individuelles et sociĂ©tales. Plusieurs Ă©tudes ont documentĂ© les liens entre le trouble de personnalitĂ© limite (TPL) et la VC, mais nous en connaissons trĂšs peu quant aux traits pathologiques spĂ©cifiques contribuant Ă  la VC. L’étude vise Ă  documenter le phĂ©nomĂšne de VC commise et subie chez des personnes souffrant de TPL et Ă  dresser des profils Ă  partir des facettes de la personnalitĂ© du ModĂšle alternatif pour les troubles de la personnalitĂ© du DSM-5.MĂ©thode Cent huit participants/participantes avec un TPL (83,3 % femmes ; MĂąge = 32,39, É.-T. = 9) rĂ©fĂ©rĂ©es Ă  un programme d’hĂŽpital de jour Ă  la suite d’un Ă©pisode de crise ont rempli une batterie de questionnaires comprenant les versions françaises du Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, Ă©valuant la VC psychologique et physique, commise et subie, et du Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 — FacetedBrief Form, Ă©valuant 25 facettes pathologiques de la personnalitĂ©.RĂ©sultats Parmi les participants/participantes, 78,7 % rapportent avoir dĂ©jĂ  commis de la VC psychologique, alors que 68,5 % en auraient Ă©tĂ© victimes, ce qui est plus que les estimations publiĂ©es par l’Organisation mondiale de la santĂ© (27 %). De plus, 31,5 % auraient commis de la VC physique, alors que 22,2 % en auraient Ă©tĂ© victimes. La VC semble bidirectionnelle puisque 85,9 % des personnes ayant commis de la VC psychologique rapportent aussi en subir et 52,9 % des personnes ayant commis de la VC physique rapportent en ĂȘtre Ă©galement victimes. Des comparaisons de groupes non paramĂ©triques indiquent que les facettes HostilitĂ©, MĂ©fiance, DuplicitĂ©, Prise de risques et IrresponsabilitĂ© distinguent les personnes violentes physiquement et psychologiquement des personnes non violentes. Des rĂ©sultats Ă©levĂ©s aux facettes HostilitĂ©, DuretĂ©/InsensibilitĂ©, Manipulation et Prise de risque caractĂ©risent les participants/participantes victimes de VC psychologique, alors qu’une Ă©lĂ©vation aux facettes HostilitĂ©, Retrait, Évitement de l’intimitĂ© et Prise de risque et un rĂ©sultat faible Ă  la facette Tendance Ă  la soumission distinguent les participants/participantes victimes de VC physique des non-victimes. Des analyses de rĂ©gression mettent en Ă©vidence que la facette HostilitĂ© explique Ă  elle seule une variance significative des rĂ©sultats de VC commise, alors que la facette IrresponsabilitĂ© contribuerait de façon substantielle Ă  la variance des rĂ©sultats de VC subie.Conclusion Les rĂ©sultats font Ă©tat de la prĂ©valence Ă©levĂ©e de VC chez des personnes aux prises avec un TPL ainsi que de son caractĂšre bidirectionnel. Au-delĂ  du diagnostic de TPL, certaines facettes spĂ©cifiques de la personnalitĂ© (dont l’HostilitĂ© et l’IrresponsabilitĂ©) permettent de cibler les personnes plus Ă  risque de commettre de la VC psychologique et physique et d’en subir.Objective Personality disorders and intimate partner violence (IPV) are two problems recognized as major public health issues associated with serious individual and societal repercussions. Several studies have documented the links between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and IPV; however, we know very little about the specific pathological traits contributing to IPV. The study aims to document the phenomenon of IPV committed and suffered in persons with BPD and to draw profiles from the personality facets of the DSM-5 Alternative Model for Personality Disorders (AMPD).Method One hundred and eight BPD participants (83.3% female; Mage = 32.39, SD = 9.00) referred to a day hospital program following a crisis episode completed a battery of questionnaires including the French versions of the Revised Conflict Tactics Scales, evaluating physical and psychological IPV committed and suffered, and the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5- Faceted Brief Form, evaluating 25 pathological facets of personality.Results Among the participants, 78.7% report having committed psychological IPV, while 68.5% have been victims, which is more than the estimates published by the World Health Organization (27%). In addition, 31.5% would have committed physical IPV, while 22.2% would have been victims. IPV appears to be bidirectional since 85.9% of participants who are perpetrators of psychological IPV also report suffering from it and 52.9% of participants who are perpetrators of physical IPV report being also victims. Nonparametric group comparisons indicate that Hostility, Suspiciousness, Duplicity, Risk-Taking, and Irresponsibility facets distinguish physically and psychologically violent participants from nonviolent participants. High results on Hostility, Callousness, Manipulation, and Risk-taking facets characterize participants who are victims of psychological IPV, while an elevation in Hostility, Withdrawal, Avoidance of intimacy, and Risk-taking facets and a low result on the Submission facet distinguish participants who are victims of physical IPV from non-victims. Regression analyzes show that the Hostility facet alone explains a significant variance in the results of IPV perpetrated, while the Irresponsibility facet contributes substantially to the variance of the results of IPV experienced.Conclusion Results show the high prevalence of IPV in a sample of persons with BPD, as well as its bidirectional nature. Beyond the diagnosis of BPD, certain specific facets of the personality (including Hostility and Irresponsability) make it possible to target persons at greater risk of committing and suffering from psychological and physical IPV
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