2,323 research outputs found

    A health needs assessment of offenders on probation caseloads in Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire - report of a pilot study

    Get PDF
    This study was commissioned by the Care Services Improvement Partnership (CSIP) in the East Midlands to investigate the health needs of a sample group offenders managed by The Nottinghamshire and Derbyshire Probation Services

    What is the Relationship between Health, Mood, and Mild Cognitive Impairment?

    Get PDF
    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) often co-exists with mood problems, and both cognitive functioning and mood are known to be linked with health. This study aims to investigate how health, mood, and cognitive impairment interact. Health is often assessed using a single proxy measure, but the use of a range of measures can provide a more informative picture and allows for combination into a comprehensive measure of health. We report an analysis of data from the Cognitive Function and Ageing Study Wales (CFAS Wales, N = 3,173), in which structured interviews with older people captured measures of cognition, mood, and health. Each measure of health was assessed independently in relation to cognition and mood, and then all measures were combined to form a latent health variable and tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). SEM confirmed the association between health and cognition, with depression acting as a mediator. All measures of health were individually associated with levels of anxiety and depression. Participants reporting mood problems were less likely to engage in physical activity and more likely to report poor or fair health, have more comorbid health conditions, use more services, and experience difficulties with instrumental activities of daily living. Perceived health was associated with cognitive status; participants with MCI were more likely to report fair or poor health than participants who were cognitively unimpaired. Careful intervention and encouragement to maintain healthy lifestyles as people age could help to reduce the risk of both mood problems and cognitive decline

    Using authentic learning environments to bridge the theory-practice gap in pharmacy education.

    Get PDF
    Creating authentic learning environments highlights real-world relevance to students and contributes to their readiness for practice. Academics at Robert Gordon University used an exercise - in which student pharmacists dispense prescriptions in a simulated community pharmacy environment - as an opportunity to embed patient safety teaching in the curriculum, by introducing a reflective exercise at the end of the dispensing process. In practice, pharmacy professionals complete an entry into a "Near Miss Error Log" when an error is recorded. A similar log was included in the Student Record Book; student pharmacists were instructed to complete an entry if a member of staff identified an error during the final accuracy check of the dispensed medication. Additionally, student pharmacists were asked to reflect on the error with the aim of identifying any contributing factors and modifications that could prevent the same error from re-occurring. An evaluation of the impact the activity had on student pharmacist learning aimed to explore the views of student pharmacists, with regards to how completing the activity influenced their personal and professional development. Data collection involved student pharmacists completing two surveys. Classed as a service evaluation, ethics review was not required. Research findings showed that, of the 75 student pharmacists completing evaluation surveys, 64% (n=48) recorded fewer errors in semester two when compared to semester one. Respondents considered the exercise helpful in highlighting the need to pay more attention to detail; they referred to the exercise as helping to identify trends in their dispensing process, allowing them to avoid making similar errors in future. An overall positive response to personal and professional development was noted, with student pharmacists commenting that the exercise had facilitated reflective learning and helped to bridge the theory-practice gap

    Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for persons with mild to moderate dementia of the Alzheimer's or vascular type: a review

    No full text
    Cognitive impairments, and particularly memory deficits, are a defining feature of the early stages of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Interventions that target these cognitive deficits and the associated difficulties with activities of daily living are the subject of ever-growing interest. Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation are specific forms of non-pharmacological intervention to address cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes. The present review is an abridged version of a Cochrane Review and aims to systematically evaluate the evidence for these forms of intervention in people with mild Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published in English, comparing cognitive rehabilitation or cognitive training interventions with control conditions and reporting relevant outcomes for the person with dementia or the family caregiver (or both), were considered for inclusion. Eleven RCTs reporting cognitive training interventions were included in the review. A large number of measures were used in the different studies, and meta-analysis could be conducted for several primary and secondary outcomes of interest. Several outcomes were not measured in any of the studies. Overall estimates of the treatment effect were calculated by using a fixed-effects model, and statistical heterogeneity was measured by using a standard chi-squared statistic. One RCT of cognitive rehabilitation was identified, allowing the examination of effect sizes, but no meta-analysis could be conducted. Cognitive training was not associated with positive or negative effects in relation to any of the reported outcomes. The overall quality of the trials was low to moderate. The single RCT of cognitive rehabilitation found promising results in relation to some patient and caregiver outcomes and was generally of high quality. The available evidence regarding cognitive training remains limited, and the quality of the evidence needs to improve. However, there is still no indication of any significant benefits from cognitive training. Trial reports indicate that some gains resulting from intervention may not be captured adequately by available standardized outcome measures. The results of the single RCT of cognitive rehabilitation show promise but are preliminary in nature. Further well-designed studies of cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation are required to provide more definitive evidence. Researchers should describe and classify their interventions appropriately by using the available terminology.AB-F is supported by funding from the Dementia Collaborative Research Centre-Early Detection and Prevention and would like to acknowledge the support of the Rosemary Foundation Travel Fellowship awarded to him by the Alzheimer’s Australia Research Foundation

    Goal-orientated cognitive rehabilitation for dementias associated with Parkinson's disease―A pilot randomised controlled trial

    Get PDF
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the appropriateness and feasibility of cognitive rehabilitation for people with dementias associated with Parkinson's in a pilot randomised controlled study. METHODS: This was a single-blind pilot randomised controlled trial of goal-oriented cognitive rehabilitation for dementias associated with Parkinson's. After goal setting, participants were randomised to cognitive rehabilitation (n = 10), relaxation therapy (n = 10), or treatment-as-usual (n = 9). Primary outcomes were ratings of goal attainment and satisfaction with goal attainment. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, mood, cognition, health status, everyday functioning, and carers' ratings of goal attainment and their own quality of life and stress levels. Assessments were at 2 and 6 months following randomisation. RESULTS: At 2 months, cognitive rehabilitation was superior to treatment-as-usual and relaxation therapy for the primary outcomes of self-rated goal attainment (d = 1.63 and d = 1.82, respectively) and self-rated satisfaction with goal attainment (d = 2.04 and d = 1.84). At 6 months, cognitive rehabilitation remained superior to treatment-as-usual (d = 1.36) and relaxation therapy (d = 1.77) for self-rated goal attainment. Cognitive rehabilitation was superior to treatment as usual and/or relaxation therapy in a number of secondary outcomes at 2 months (mood, self-efficacy, social domain of quality of life, carers' ratings of participants' goal attainment) and at 6 months (delayed recall, health status, quality of life, carer ratings of participants' goal attainment). Carers receiving cognitive rehabilitation reported better quality of life, health status, and lower stress than those allocated to treatment-as-usual. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive rehabilitation is feasible and potentially effective for dementias associated with Parkinson's disease

    Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for mild to moderate Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia (Review)

    Get PDF
    BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairments, particularly memory problems, are a defining feature of the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia. Cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation are specific interventional approaches designed to address difficulties with memory and other aspects of cognitive functioning. The present review is an update of previous versions of this review. OBJECTIVES: The main aim of the current review was to evaluate the effectiveness and impact of cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation for people with mild Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in relation to important cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes for the person with dementia and the primary caregiver in the short, medium and long term. SEARCH METHODS: The CDCIG Specialized Register, ALOIS, which contains records from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, LILACS and many other clinical trial databases and grey literature sources, was most recently searched on 2 November 2012. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), published in English, comparing cognitive rehabilitation or cognitive training interventions with control conditions, and reporting relevant outcomes for the person with dementia and/or the family caregiver, were considered for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Eleven RCTs reporting cognitive training interventions were included in the review. A large number of measures were used in the different studies, and meta-analysis could be conducted for 11 of the primary and secondary outcomes of interest. Several outcomes were not measured in any of the studies. The unit of analysis in the meta-analysis was the change from baseline score. Overall estimates of treatment effect were calculated using a fixed-effect model, and statistical heterogeneity was measured using a standard Chi2 statistic. One RCT of cognitive rehabilitation was identified, allowing examination of effect sizes, but no meta-analysis could be conducted. MAIN RESULTS: Cognitive training was not associated with positive or negative effects in relation to any reported outcomes. The overall quality of the trials was low to moderate. The single RCT of cognitive rehabilitation found promising results in relation to a number of participant and caregiver outcomes, and was generally of high quality. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Available evidence regarding cognitive training remains limited, and the quality of the evidence needs to improve.However, there is still no indication of any significant benefit derived fromcognitive training. Trial reports indicate that some gains resulting fromintervention may not be captured adequately by available standardised outcome measures. The results of the single RCT of cognitive rehabilitation show promise but are preliminary in nature. Further, well-designed studies of cognitive training and cognitive rehabilitation are required to obtainmore definitive evidence. Researchers should describe and classify their interventions appropriately using available terminology.Dementia Collaborative Research CentresNHMRC (National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia
    • …
    corecore