221 research outputs found

    Gluten Induces Subtle Histological Changes in Duodenal Mucosa of Patients with Non-Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity: A Multicentre Study

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    Background: Histological changes induced by gluten in the duodenal mucosa of patients with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are poorly defined. Objectives: To evaluate the structural and inflammatory features of NCGS compared to controls and coeliac disease (CeD) with milder enteropathy (Marsh I-II). Methods: Well-oriented biopsies of 262 control cases with normal gastroscopy and histologic findings, 261 CeD, and 175 NCGS biopsies from 9 contributing countries were examined. Villus height (VH, in mu m), crypt depth (CrD, in mu m), villus-to-crypt ratios (VCR), IELs (intraepithelial lymphocytes/100 enterocytes), and other relevant histological, serologic, and demographic parameters were quantified. Results: The median VH in NCGS was significantly shorter (600, IQR: 400-705) than controls (900, IQR: 667-1112) (p < 0.001). NCGS patients with Marsh I-II had similar VH and VCR to CeD [465 mu m (IQR: 390-620) vs. 427 mu m (IQR: 348-569, p = 0 center dot 176)]. The VCR in NCGS with Marsh 0 was lower than controls (p < 0.001). The median IEL in NCGS with Marsh 0 was higher than controls (23.0 vs. 13.7, p < 0.001). To distinguish Marsh 0 NCGS from controls, an IEL cut-off of 14 showed 79% sensitivity and 55% specificity. IEL densities in Marsh I-II NCGS and CeD groups were similar. Conclusion: NCGS duodenal mucosa exhibits distinctive changes consistent with an intestinal response to luminal antigens, even at the Marsh 0 stage of villus architecture

    Gluten induces subtle histological changes in duodenal mucosa of patients with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity: a multicentre study

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    Background: Histological changes induced by gluten in the duodenal mucosa of patients with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are poorly defined. Objectives: To evaluate the structural and inflammatory features of NCGS compared to controls and coeliac disease (CeD) with milder enteropathy (Marsh I-II). Methods: Well-oriented biopsies of 262 control cases with normal gastroscopy and histologic findings, 261 CeD, and 175 NCGS biopsies from 9 contributing countries were examined. Villus height (VH, in ÎŒm), crypt depth (CrD, in ÎŒm), villus-to-crypt ratios (VCR), IELs (intraepithelial lymphocytes/100 enterocytes), and other relevant histological, serologic, and demographic parameters were quantified. Results: The median VH in NCGS was significantly shorter (600, IQR: 400–705) than controls (900, IQR: 667–1112) (p < 0.001). NCGS patients with Marsh I-II had similar VH and VCR to CeD [465 ”m (IQR: 390–620) vs. 427 ”m (IQR: 348–569, p = 0·176)]. The VCR in NCGS with Marsh 0 was lower than controls (p < 0.001). The median IEL in NCGS with Marsh 0 was higher than controls (23.0 vs. 13.7, p < 0.001). To distinguish Marsh 0 NCGS from controls, an IEL cut-off of 14 showed 79% sensitivity and 55% specificity. IEL densities in Marsh I-II NCGS and CeD groups were similar. Conclusion: NCGS duodenal mucosa exhibits distinctive changes consistent with an intestinal response to luminal antigens, even at the Marsh 0 stage of villus architectur

    Gluten induces subtle histological changes in duodenal mucosa of patients with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity : a multicentre study

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    Background: Histological changes induced by gluten in the duodenal mucosa of patients with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are poorly defined. Objectives: To evaluate the structural and inflammatory features of NCGS compared to controls and coeliac disease (CeD) with milder enteropathy (Marsh I-II). Methods: Well-oriented biopsies of 262 control cases with normal gastroscopy and histologic findings, 261 CeD, and 175 NCGS biopsies from 9 contributing countries were examined. Villus height (VH, in ÎŒm), crypt depth (CrD, in ÎŒm), villus-to-crypt ratios (VCR), IELs (intraepithelial lymphocytes/100 enterocytes), and other relevant histological, serologic, and demographic parameters were quantified. Results: The median VH in NCGS was significantly shorter (600, IQR: 400–705) than controls (900, IQR: 667–1112) (p < 0.001). NCGS patients with Marsh I-II had similar VH and VCR to CeD [465 ”m (IQR: 390–620) vs. 427 ”m (IQR: 348–569, p = 0·176)]. The VCR in NCGS with Marsh 0 was lower than controls (p < 0.001). The median IEL in NCGS with Marsh 0 was higher than controls (23.0 vs. 13.7, p < 0.001). To distinguish Marsh 0 NCGS from controls, an IEL cut-off of 14 showed 79% sensitivity and 55% specificity. IEL densities in Marsh I-II NCGS and CeD groups were similar. Conclusion: NCGS duodenal mucosa exhibits distinctive changes consistent with an intestinal response to luminal antigens, even at the Marsh 0 stage of villus architecture

    Ocular anterior segment and corneal parameters evaluation in celiac disease

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    This observational case–control study evaluated the anterior ocular segment parameters of patients with celiac disease with a Scheimpflug imaging system and compared them with those of a healthy controls group, highlighting potential differences related to the underlying pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease. Seventy celiac patients and 70 healthy subjects were assessed with a comprehensive ophthalmological evaluation, including clinical history, Snellen best-corrected visual acuity, axial length (AL) measurements with IOLMaster, and anterior segment tomographic evaluation with Pentacam HR. The measurements of all keratometry values, astigmatism, steep axis, anterior and posterior Q value (asphericity), pupil diameter, pupil center, corneal apex, the thinnest point, corneal volume, anterior chamber depth from the epithelium, anterior chamber depth from endothelium, anterior chamber volume, and iridocorneal angle were also appraised. The two study groups were comparable and similar for gender, age, and AL, with no statistically significant differences regarding all analyzed tomographic parameters. Thus, ocular anterior segment parameters of celiac patients are not significantly different from those of healthy subjects, suggesting no underlying pathogenetic implications of celiac disease affecting the assessed structures. Nevertheless, a routine ophthalmological examination for all celiac patients should be recommended throughout their lifetimes due to the potential ocular manifestations of the disease

    Gluten Induces Subtle Histological Changes in Duodenal Mu-cosa of Patients with Non-Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity: A Multi-center Study

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    Histological changes induced by gluten in the duodenal mucosa of patients with non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) are poorly defined. Objectives: To evaluate the structural and inflammatory features of NCGS compared to controls and coeliac disease (CeD) with milder enteropathy (Marsh I-II). Methods: Well-oriented biopsies of 262 control cases with normal gastroscopy and histologic findings, 261 CeD, and 175 NCGS biopsies from 9 contributing countries were examined. Villus height (VH, in ÎŒm), crypt depth (CrD, in ÎŒm), villus-to-crypt ratios (VCR), IELs (intraepithelial lymphocytes/100 enterocytes), and other relevant histological, serologic, and demographic parameters were quantified. Results: The median VH in NCGS was significantly shorter (600, IQR: 400−705) than controls (900, IQR: 667−1112) (p < 0.001). NCGS patients with Marsh I-II had similar VH and VCR to CeD [465 ”m (IQR: 390−620) vs. 427 ”m (IQR: 348−569, p = 0·176)]. The VCR in NCGS with Marsh 0 was lower than controls (p < 0.001). The median IEL in NCGS with Marsh 0 was higher than controls (23.0 vs. 13.7, p < 0.001). To distinguish Marsh 0 NCGS from controls, an IEL cut-off of 14 showed 79% sensitivity and 55% specificity. IEL densities in Marsh I-II NCGS and CeD groups were similar. Conclusion: NCGS duodenal mucosa exhibits distinctive changes consistent with an intestinal response to luminal antigens, even at the Marsh 0 stage of villus architecture

    Gluten immunogenic peptides (Gip) point-of-care urine test in coeliac disease follow-up before and during the covid-19 lockdown in Italy

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    Introduction: Celiac disease (CeD) diagnosis has worldwide shared protocols. Conversely, follow-up of patients is still an object of study. Gluten immunogenic peptide detection in the urine (GIP) appears to be a new and efficient method for dietary gluten control of patients. The present study aims to assess the clinical usefulness of the GIP point-of-care urine test in the follow-up of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with CeD before and during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy. Methods: Thirty adult CeD patients on a gluten-free diet (GFD) were enrolled before and during the COVID-19 lockdown through follow-up visits or remote consultation. Patients underwent anthropometrical evaluation, dietetic interview, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Then, two groups were formed: symptomatic and worried about gluten contamina-tion. Each patient received 5 GIP point-of-care tests to perform a maximum of 5 times in the following 5 weeks in case of symptoms or anxiety state due to hypothesized gluten contamination. Results: Sixteen symptomatic patients and 14 patients with concerns related to gluten contamination were included. There were no differences in age, BMI, compliance to GFD and GIP positive tests between the two groups. Worried group showed a borderline higher level of anxiety than symptomatic group (p = 0.06), with a significant minor percentage of patients reporting “no or low anxiety” (14.3% vs 50% p = 0.03). The symptomatic patients showed a higher rate of diarrhea than worried group (25% vs 0%, p = 0.04). Gluten in urine samples was globally found in 8 out of 30 cases (26.6%). Conclusion: The GIP test is a tool that can be used as a point of care test to assess adequate compliance with GFD and reassure symptomatic CeD patients from the feeling of anxiety for gluten contamination, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic

    Identifying locations susceptible to micro-anatomical reentry using a spatial network representation of atrial fibre maps

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    Micro-anatomical reentry has been identified as a potential driver of atrial fibrillation (AF). In this paper, we introduce a novel computational method which aims to identify which atrial regions are most susceptible to micro-reentry. The approach, which considers the structural basis for micro-reentry only, is based on the premise that the accumulation of electrically insulating interstitial fibrosis can be modelled by simulating percolation-like phenomena on spatial networks. Our results suggest that at high coupling, where micro-reentry is rare, the micro-reentrant substrate is highly clustered in areas where the atrial walls are thin and have convex wall morphology. However, as transverse connections between fibres are removed, mimicking the accumulation of interstitial fibrosis, the substrate becomes less spatially clustered, and the bias to forming in thin, convex regions of the atria is reduced. Comparing our algorithm on image-based models with and without atrial fibre structure, we find that strong longitudinal fibre coupling can suppress the micro-reentrant substrate, whereas regions with disordered fibre orientations have an enhanced risk of micro-reentry. We suggest that with further development, these methods may have future potential for patient-specific risk stratification, taking a longitudinal view of the development of the micro-reentrant substrate. Author summary Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common abnormal heart rhythm, yet, despite extensive research, treatment success rates remain poor. In part, this is because there is an incomplete understanding of the mechanistic origin of AF. In this paper, we investigate one proposed mechanism of AF, the formation of “micro-reentrant circuits”, which can be thought of as a “short circuit”, forming when electrically insulating fibrosis (structural repair tissue) infiltrates the space between heart muscle cells. Previously, such circuits have been found in experimental hearts, but identifying these circuits clinically is difficult. Here, we aim to take a small step towards developing computational methods for identifying where in the atria these circuits are most likely to form, drawing on techniques from network science. Our approach indicates that a number of factors are key to determining where circuits form, most notably the thickness of the heart muscle, and the alignment of muscle fibres

    Choroidal structural evaluation in celiac disease

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    This observational case–control study assessed the differences in choroidal structure between patients with celiac disease and healthy subjects utilizing the choroidal vascularity index (CVI). Seventy-four celiac patients and 67 healthy subjects underwent a complete ophthalmological evaluation, axial length (AL) measurements and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging mode (EDI SD-OCT) evaluation. These images were binarized and choroidal vasculature was analyzed. Choroidal total subfoveal area (TSA), luminal subfoveal area (LSA), stromal subfoveal area (SSA), CVI and subfoveal choroidal thickness (CT) were measured. Furthermore, subfoveal CT, TSA, LSA, SSA, and CVI were also correlated with AL. A statistically significant difference was found between the two groups for TSA, LSA, SSA and subfoveal CT, but not for CVI. In celiac patients, a significant correlation was found between AL and TSA, LSA and SSA, but not with CVI. Similar findings were also noticed in the healthy subjects. Thus, celiac patients have a thicker choroid than healthy subjects, regardless of the AL, due to a proportional increase in both the vascular and stromal components, which does not alter the CVI
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