22 research outputs found

    Table_1_Molecular mechanisms of pancreatic cancer liver metastasis: the role of PAK2.docx

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    BackgroundPancreatic cancer remains an extremely malignant digestive tract tumor, posing a significant global public health burden. Patients with pancreatic cancer, once metastasis occurs, lose all hope of cure, and prognosis is extremely poor. It is important to investigate liver metastasis of Pancreatic cancer in depth, not just because it is the most common form of metastasis in pancreatic cancer, but also because it is crucial for treatment planning and prognosis assessment. This study aims to delve into the mechanisms of pancreatic cancer liver metastasis, with the goal of providing crucial scientific groundwork for the development of future treatment methods and drugs.MethodsWe explored the mechanisms of pancreatic cancer liver metastasis using single-cell sequencing data (GSE155698 and GSE154778) and bulk data (GSE71729, GSE19279, TCGA-PAAD). Initially, Seurat package was employed for single-cell data processing to obtain expression matrices for primary pancreatic cancer lesions and liver metastatic lesions. Subsequently, high-dimensional weighted gene co-expression network analysis (hdWGCNA) was used to identify genes associated with liver metastasis. Machine learning algorithms and COX regression models were employed to further screen genes related to patient prognosis. Informed by both biological understanding and the outcomes of algorithms, we meticulously identified the ultimate set of liver metastasis-related gene (LRG). In the study of LRG genes, various databases were utilized to validate their association with pancreatic cancer liver metastasis. In order to analyze the effects of these agents on tumor microenvironment, we conducted an in-depth analysis, including changes in signaling pathways (GSVA), cell differentiation (pseudo-temporal analysis), cell communication networks (cell communication analysis), and downstream transcription factors (transcription factor activity prediction). Additionally, drug sensitivity analysis and metabolic analysis were performed to reveal the effects of LRG on gemcitabine resistance and metabolic pathways. Finally, functional experiments were conducted by silencing the expression of LRG in PANC-1 and Bx-PC-3 cells to validate its influence to proliferation and invasiveness on PANC-1 and Bx-PC-3 cells.ResultsThrough a series of algorithmic filters, we identified PAK2 as a key gene promoting pancreatic cancer liver metastasis. GSVA analysis elucidated the activation of the TGF-beta signaling pathway by PAK2 to promote the occurrence of liver metastasis. Pseudo-temporal analysis revealed a significant correlation between PAK2 expression and the lower differentiation status of pancreatic cancer cells. Cell communication analysis revealed that overexpression of PAK2 promotes communication between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. Transcription factor activity prediction displayed the transcription factor network regulated by PAK2. Drug sensitivity analysis and metabolic analysis revealed the impact of PAK2 on gemcitabine resistance and metabolic pathways. CCK8 experiments showed that silencing PAK2 led to a decrease in the proliferative capacity of pancreatic cancer cells and scratch experiments demonstrated that low expression of PAK2 decreased invasion capability in pancreatic cancer cells. Flow cytometry reveals that PAK2 significantly inhibited apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Molecules related to the TGF-beta pathway decreased with the inhibition of PAK2, and there were corresponding significant changes in molecules associated with EMT.ConclusionPAK2 facilitated the angiogenic potential of cancer cells and promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process by activating the TGF-beta signaling pathway. Simultaneously, it decreased the differentiation level of cancer cells, consequently enhancing their malignancy. Additionally, PAK2 fostered communication between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment, augments cancer cell chemoresistance, and modulates energy metabolism pathways. In summary, PAK2 emerged as a pivotal gene orchestrating pancreatic cancer liver metastasis. Intervening in the expression of PAK2 may offer a promising therapeutic strategy for preventing liver metastasis of pancreatic cancer and improving its prognosis.</p

    Image_1_Molecular mechanisms of pancreatic cancer liver metastasis: the role of PAK2.tif

    No full text
    BackgroundPancreatic cancer remains an extremely malignant digestive tract tumor, posing a significant global public health burden. Patients with pancreatic cancer, once metastasis occurs, lose all hope of cure, and prognosis is extremely poor. It is important to investigate liver metastasis of Pancreatic cancer in depth, not just because it is the most common form of metastasis in pancreatic cancer, but also because it is crucial for treatment planning and prognosis assessment. This study aims to delve into the mechanisms of pancreatic cancer liver metastasis, with the goal of providing crucial scientific groundwork for the development of future treatment methods and drugs.MethodsWe explored the mechanisms of pancreatic cancer liver metastasis using single-cell sequencing data (GSE155698 and GSE154778) and bulk data (GSE71729, GSE19279, TCGA-PAAD). Initially, Seurat package was employed for single-cell data processing to obtain expression matrices for primary pancreatic cancer lesions and liver metastatic lesions. Subsequently, high-dimensional weighted gene co-expression network analysis (hdWGCNA) was used to identify genes associated with liver metastasis. Machine learning algorithms and COX regression models were employed to further screen genes related to patient prognosis. Informed by both biological understanding and the outcomes of algorithms, we meticulously identified the ultimate set of liver metastasis-related gene (LRG). In the study of LRG genes, various databases were utilized to validate their association with pancreatic cancer liver metastasis. In order to analyze the effects of these agents on tumor microenvironment, we conducted an in-depth analysis, including changes in signaling pathways (GSVA), cell differentiation (pseudo-temporal analysis), cell communication networks (cell communication analysis), and downstream transcription factors (transcription factor activity prediction). Additionally, drug sensitivity analysis and metabolic analysis were performed to reveal the effects of LRG on gemcitabine resistance and metabolic pathways. Finally, functional experiments were conducted by silencing the expression of LRG in PANC-1 and Bx-PC-3 cells to validate its influence to proliferation and invasiveness on PANC-1 and Bx-PC-3 cells.ResultsThrough a series of algorithmic filters, we identified PAK2 as a key gene promoting pancreatic cancer liver metastasis. GSVA analysis elucidated the activation of the TGF-beta signaling pathway by PAK2 to promote the occurrence of liver metastasis. Pseudo-temporal analysis revealed a significant correlation between PAK2 expression and the lower differentiation status of pancreatic cancer cells. Cell communication analysis revealed that overexpression of PAK2 promotes communication between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. Transcription factor activity prediction displayed the transcription factor network regulated by PAK2. Drug sensitivity analysis and metabolic analysis revealed the impact of PAK2 on gemcitabine resistance and metabolic pathways. CCK8 experiments showed that silencing PAK2 led to a decrease in the proliferative capacity of pancreatic cancer cells and scratch experiments demonstrated that low expression of PAK2 decreased invasion capability in pancreatic cancer cells. Flow cytometry reveals that PAK2 significantly inhibited apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Molecules related to the TGF-beta pathway decreased with the inhibition of PAK2, and there were corresponding significant changes in molecules associated with EMT.ConclusionPAK2 facilitated the angiogenic potential of cancer cells and promotes the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process by activating the TGF-beta signaling pathway. Simultaneously, it decreased the differentiation level of cancer cells, consequently enhancing their malignancy. Additionally, PAK2 fostered communication between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment, augments cancer cell chemoresistance, and modulates energy metabolism pathways. In summary, PAK2 emerged as a pivotal gene orchestrating pancreatic cancer liver metastasis. Intervening in the expression of PAK2 may offer a promising therapeutic strategy for preventing liver metastasis of pancreatic cancer and improving its prognosis.</p

    Table_3_Significance of monocyte infiltration in patients with gastric cancer: A combined study based on single cell sequencing and TCGA.xlsx

    No full text
    BackgroundGastric cancer is still one of the most lethal tumor diseases in the world. Despite some improvements, the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer is still not accurately predicted.MethodsBased on single cell sequencing data, we conducted a detailed analysis of gastric cancer patients and normal tissues to determine the role of monocytes in the progression of gastric cancer. WCGA facilitated our search for Grade-related genes in TCGA. Then, according to the marker genes and cell differentiation genes of monocytes, we determined the cancer-promoting genes of monocytes. Based on LASSO regression, we established a prognostic model using TCGA database. The accuracy of the model was verified by PCA, ROC curve, survival analysis and prognostic analysis. Finally, we evaluated the significance of the model in clinical diagnosis and treatment by observing drug sensitivity, immune microenvironment and immune checkpoint expression in patients with different risk groups.ResultsMonocytes were poorly differentiated in tumor microenvironment. It mainly played a role in promoting cancer in two ways. One was to promote tumor progression indirectly by interacting with other tumor stromal cells. The other was to directly connect with tumor cells through the MIF and TNF pathway to play a tumor-promoting role. The former was more important in these two ways. A total of 292 monocyte tumor-promoting genes were obtained, and 12 genes were finally included in the construction of the prognosis model. A variety of validation methods showed that our model had an accurate prediction ability. Drug sensitivity analysis could provide guidance for clinical medication of patients. The results of immune microenvironment and immune checkpoint also indicated the reasons for poor prognosis of high-risk patients.ConclusionIn conclusion, we provided a 12-gene risk score formula and nomogram for gastric cancer patients to assist clinical drug therapy and prognosis prediction. This model had good accuracy and clinical significance.</p

    DataSheet_1_Significance of monocyte infiltration in patients with gastric cancer: A combined study based on single cell sequencing and TCGA.zip

    No full text
    BackgroundGastric cancer is still one of the most lethal tumor diseases in the world. Despite some improvements, the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer is still not accurately predicted.MethodsBased on single cell sequencing data, we conducted a detailed analysis of gastric cancer patients and normal tissues to determine the role of monocytes in the progression of gastric cancer. WCGA facilitated our search for Grade-related genes in TCGA. Then, according to the marker genes and cell differentiation genes of monocytes, we determined the cancer-promoting genes of monocytes. Based on LASSO regression, we established a prognostic model using TCGA database. The accuracy of the model was verified by PCA, ROC curve, survival analysis and prognostic analysis. Finally, we evaluated the significance of the model in clinical diagnosis and treatment by observing drug sensitivity, immune microenvironment and immune checkpoint expression in patients with different risk groups.ResultsMonocytes were poorly differentiated in tumor microenvironment. It mainly played a role in promoting cancer in two ways. One was to promote tumor progression indirectly by interacting with other tumor stromal cells. The other was to directly connect with tumor cells through the MIF and TNF pathway to play a tumor-promoting role. The former was more important in these two ways. A total of 292 monocyte tumor-promoting genes were obtained, and 12 genes were finally included in the construction of the prognosis model. A variety of validation methods showed that our model had an accurate prediction ability. Drug sensitivity analysis could provide guidance for clinical medication of patients. The results of immune microenvironment and immune checkpoint also indicated the reasons for poor prognosis of high-risk patients.ConclusionIn conclusion, we provided a 12-gene risk score formula and nomogram for gastric cancer patients to assist clinical drug therapy and prognosis prediction. This model had good accuracy and clinical significance.</p

    Table_2_Significance of monocyte infiltration in patients with gastric cancer: A combined study based on single cell sequencing and TCGA.xlsx

    No full text
    BackgroundGastric cancer is still one of the most lethal tumor diseases in the world. Despite some improvements, the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer is still not accurately predicted.MethodsBased on single cell sequencing data, we conducted a detailed analysis of gastric cancer patients and normal tissues to determine the role of monocytes in the progression of gastric cancer. WCGA facilitated our search for Grade-related genes in TCGA. Then, according to the marker genes and cell differentiation genes of monocytes, we determined the cancer-promoting genes of monocytes. Based on LASSO regression, we established a prognostic model using TCGA database. The accuracy of the model was verified by PCA, ROC curve, survival analysis and prognostic analysis. Finally, we evaluated the significance of the model in clinical diagnosis and treatment by observing drug sensitivity, immune microenvironment and immune checkpoint expression in patients with different risk groups.ResultsMonocytes were poorly differentiated in tumor microenvironment. It mainly played a role in promoting cancer in two ways. One was to promote tumor progression indirectly by interacting with other tumor stromal cells. The other was to directly connect with tumor cells through the MIF and TNF pathway to play a tumor-promoting role. The former was more important in these two ways. A total of 292 monocyte tumor-promoting genes were obtained, and 12 genes were finally included in the construction of the prognosis model. A variety of validation methods showed that our model had an accurate prediction ability. Drug sensitivity analysis could provide guidance for clinical medication of patients. The results of immune microenvironment and immune checkpoint also indicated the reasons for poor prognosis of high-risk patients.ConclusionIn conclusion, we provided a 12-gene risk score formula and nomogram for gastric cancer patients to assist clinical drug therapy and prognosis prediction. This model had good accuracy and clinical significance.</p

    Table_1_Significance of monocyte infiltration in patients with gastric cancer: A combined study based on single cell sequencing and TCGA.xlsx

    No full text
    BackgroundGastric cancer is still one of the most lethal tumor diseases in the world. Despite some improvements, the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer is still not accurately predicted.MethodsBased on single cell sequencing data, we conducted a detailed analysis of gastric cancer patients and normal tissues to determine the role of monocytes in the progression of gastric cancer. WCGA facilitated our search for Grade-related genes in TCGA. Then, according to the marker genes and cell differentiation genes of monocytes, we determined the cancer-promoting genes of monocytes. Based on LASSO regression, we established a prognostic model using TCGA database. The accuracy of the model was verified by PCA, ROC curve, survival analysis and prognostic analysis. Finally, we evaluated the significance of the model in clinical diagnosis and treatment by observing drug sensitivity, immune microenvironment and immune checkpoint expression in patients with different risk groups.ResultsMonocytes were poorly differentiated in tumor microenvironment. It mainly played a role in promoting cancer in two ways. One was to promote tumor progression indirectly by interacting with other tumor stromal cells. The other was to directly connect with tumor cells through the MIF and TNF pathway to play a tumor-promoting role. The former was more important in these two ways. A total of 292 monocyte tumor-promoting genes were obtained, and 12 genes were finally included in the construction of the prognosis model. A variety of validation methods showed that our model had an accurate prediction ability. Drug sensitivity analysis could provide guidance for clinical medication of patients. The results of immune microenvironment and immune checkpoint also indicated the reasons for poor prognosis of high-risk patients.ConclusionIn conclusion, we provided a 12-gene risk score formula and nomogram for gastric cancer patients to assist clinical drug therapy and prognosis prediction. This model had good accuracy and clinical significance.</p

    Image_1_Significance of monocyte infiltration in patients with gastric cancer: A combined study based on single cell sequencing and TCGA.jpeg

    No full text
    BackgroundGastric cancer is still one of the most lethal tumor diseases in the world. Despite some improvements, the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer is still not accurately predicted.MethodsBased on single cell sequencing data, we conducted a detailed analysis of gastric cancer patients and normal tissues to determine the role of monocytes in the progression of gastric cancer. WCGA facilitated our search for Grade-related genes in TCGA. Then, according to the marker genes and cell differentiation genes of monocytes, we determined the cancer-promoting genes of monocytes. Based on LASSO regression, we established a prognostic model using TCGA database. The accuracy of the model was verified by PCA, ROC curve, survival analysis and prognostic analysis. Finally, we evaluated the significance of the model in clinical diagnosis and treatment by observing drug sensitivity, immune microenvironment and immune checkpoint expression in patients with different risk groups.ResultsMonocytes were poorly differentiated in tumor microenvironment. It mainly played a role in promoting cancer in two ways. One was to promote tumor progression indirectly by interacting with other tumor stromal cells. The other was to directly connect with tumor cells through the MIF and TNF pathway to play a tumor-promoting role. The former was more important in these two ways. A total of 292 monocyte tumor-promoting genes were obtained, and 12 genes were finally included in the construction of the prognosis model. A variety of validation methods showed that our model had an accurate prediction ability. Drug sensitivity analysis could provide guidance for clinical medication of patients. The results of immune microenvironment and immune checkpoint also indicated the reasons for poor prognosis of high-risk patients.ConclusionIn conclusion, we provided a 12-gene risk score formula and nomogram for gastric cancer patients to assist clinical drug therapy and prognosis prediction. This model had good accuracy and clinical significance.</p

    Experimental results of saliency-based target detection for the same scene in Fig. 12.

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    <p>(A) Overall salience map without lateral inhibition filtering and movement factor. (B) Overall salience map with lateral inhibition filtering. (C) Overall salience map with movement factor. (D-F) Energy distribution under mesh graph of the corresponding salience map from (A) to (C), respectively.</p

    Comparison experimental results in the scene with strong clutters and noise.

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    <p>(A) The original scene.(B) Image after lateral inhibition filtering. (C) Image after high-pass filter.</p

    Procedure of ABC algorithm optimized movement vector acquisition.

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    <p>Procedure of ABC algorithm optimized movement vector acquisition.</p
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