115 research outputs found

    Atlas de la criminalité en France

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    Les dimensions du phénomène criminel sont présentées aussi bien sur le plan méthodologique que sur le plan de leur inscription dans l’espace. Criminalité et délinquance sont régionalisées et interprétées dans leurs différents contenus et dans leur géographie même: une information surprenante, et qui apprend beaucoup sur notre société comme sur notre territoire

    Genetic causes of Parkinson’s disease in the Maltese : a study of selected mutations in LRRK2, MTHFR, QDPR and SPR

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    The samples and data used in this study were collected as part of the 5th framework (FP5) EU funded Geoparkinson study, project number QLK4‐CT‐ 1999‐01133. The Maltese arm of this group included Prof Christian Scerri, Dr Joseph Borg, Dr Karen Cassar, Ms Wilma Cassar, Ms Ruth Galdies, Dr Norbert Vella, Dr Vicky Mifsud, Dr Josanne Aquilina and Dr Galea Debono.Background: Mutations in Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 NM_198578 (LRRK2 c.6055G>A (p.G2019S), LRRK2 c.4321C>G (p.R1441G)) and alpha-synuclein NM_000345 (SNCA c.209G>A (p.A53T)) genes causing Parkinson's disease (PD) are common in Mediterranean populations. Variants in the Quinoid Dihydropteridine Reductase NM_000320 (QDPR c.68G>A (p.G23D)), Sepiapterin Reductase NM_003124 (SPR c.596-2A>G) and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase NM_005957 (MTHFR c.677C>T and c.1298A>C) genes are frequent in Malta and potential candidates for PD. Methods: 178 cases and 402 control samples from Malta collected as part of the Geoparkinson project were genotyped for MTHFR polymorphisms, QDPR and SPR mutations. Only PD and parkinsonism cases were tested for SNCA and LRRK2 mutations. Results: LRRK2 c.4321C>G and SNCA c.209G>A were not detected. The LRRK2 c.6055G>A mutation was found in 3.1 % of Maltese PD cases. The QDPR mutation was found in both cases and controls and did not increase risk for PD. The SPR mutation was found in controls only. The odds ratios for MTHFR polymorphisms were not elevated. Conclusions: The LRRK2 c.6055G>A is a cause of PD in the Maltese, whilst QDPR c.68G>A, SPR c.596-2A>G and MTHFR c.677C>T and c.1298A>C are not important determinants of PD.The samples and data used in this study were collected as part of the 5th framework (FP5) EU funded Geoparkinson study, project number QLK4‐CT‐ 1999‐01133. This work was supported by research grants of SBW and RF from the University of Malta. The funders played no other part in the research or its interpretation.peer-reviewe

    Using multilevel random coefficient models to assess students’ spelling abilities

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    This paper presents statistical models that analyze cross- sectional data related to student attainment in English and Maltese spelling. For each spelling test a random sample of 2040 students, whose age ranged from 6.5 to 16 years, was selected to examine the progression of spelling skills over time. The sample comprised equal numbers of male and female students attending state, church and private schools to investigate gender and school bias in students’ spelling abilities. This hierarchical nested data can be deemed as a type of two-level data, in which the students spelling scores are level-1 units and schools are the level- 2 units. This multilevel approach provides an adequate framework for modelling hierarchical data at several levels of nesting. To inspect the effect of age on student performance in English and Maltese spelling in different schools, a random coefficient model is fitted. This allows the school-specific coefficients describing individual trajectories to vary randomly when the spelling scores are regressed against the student age.peer-reviewe

    Expression variation in connected recombinant populations of Arabidopsis thaliana highlights distinct transcriptome architectures

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Expression traits can vary quantitatively between individuals and have a complex inheritance. Identification of the genetics underlying transcript variation can help in the understanding of phenotypic variation due to genetic factors regulating transcript abundance and shed light into divergence patterns. So far, only a limited number of studies have addressed this subject in Arabidopsis, with contrasting results due to dissimilar statistical power. Here, we present the transcriptome architecture in leaf tissue of two RIL sets obtained from a connected-cross design involving 3 commonly used accessions. We also present the transcriptome architecture observed in developing seeds of a third independent cross.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The utilisation of the novel R/eqtl package (which goal is to automatize and extend functions from the R/qtl package) allowed us to map 4,290 and 6,534 eQTLs in the Cvi-0 × Col-0 and Bur-0 × Col-0 recombinant populations respectively. In agreement with previous studies, we observed a larger phenotypic variance explained by eQTLs in linkage with the controlled gene (potentially <it>cis</it>-acting), compared to distant loci (acting necessarily indirectly or in <it>trans</it>). Distant eQTLs hotspots were essentially not conserved between crosses, but instead, cross-specific. Accounting for confounding factors using a probabilistic approach (VBQTL) increased the mapping resolution and the number of significant associations. Moreover, using local eQTLs obtained from this approach, we detected evidence for a directional allelic effect in genes with related function, where significantly more eQTLs than expected by chance were up-regulated from one of the accessions. Primary experimental data, analysis parameters, eQTL results and visualisation of LOD score curves presented here are stored and accessible through the QTLstore service database <url>http://qtlstore.versailles.inra.fr/</url>.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Our results demonstrate the extensive diversity and moderately conserved eQTL landscape between crosses and validate the utilisation of expression traits to explore for candidates behind phenotypic variation among accessions. Furthermore, this stresses the need for a wider spectrum of diversity to fully understand expression trait variation within a species.</p

    Patient decision-making about emergency and planned stoma surgery for IBD: a qualitative exploration of patient and clinician perspectives

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    Background: Many IBD patients worry about stoma forming surgery (SFS), sometimes enduring poor bowel-related quality of life to avoid it. Anticipation of SFS and whether expectations match experience is under-reported. This qualitative study explored influences on patients’ SFS decision-making, and compared pre-operative concerns with post-operative outcomes. Methods: We purposively recruited participants with IBD from UK hospital outpatient and community sources, and IBD clinicians from public hospitals. Four focus groups and 29 semi-structured patient participant interviews, and 18 clinician interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and analysed thematically. Participants had a current temporary, recently-reversed, or permanent stoma, or were stoma naïve. Results: Four themes emerged: Pre-operative concerns and expectations, Patient decision-making, Surgery and recovery, and Long-term outcomes. Participants and clinicians agreed about most pre-operative concerns, that outcomes were often better than expected, and support from others with a stoma is beneficial. Patient decision-making involves multiple factors, including disease status. Some clinicians avoid discussing SFS, and the phrase ‘last resort’ can bias patient perceptions; others recommend early discussion, increasing dialogue when medical management becomes ineffective. The post-operative period is particularly challenging for patients. Stoma acceptance is influenced by personal perceptions and pre- and post-operative clinical and social support. Conclusion: Patients need balanced information on all treatment options, including surgery, from an early stage. Early multi-disciplinary team dialogue about SFS, and contact with others living well with a stoma, could enable informed decision-making. Life with a stoma is often better than anticipated, improving quality of life and control. Ongoing specialist nursing support aids recovery and adjustment

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25·4% (95% CI 19·1-31·8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7·8%, 4·8-10·7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27·2%, 17·6-36·8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33·0%, 18·3-47·6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6·6%, 1·8-11·3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33·1%, 11·1-55·1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24·3%, 16·1-32·6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    Seniority-based entitlements : extent, policy debates and research

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    Aquesta publicació s'elabora a partir de les contribucions de cadascú dels membres nacionals que integren la Network of Eufound Correspondent. Pel cas d'Espanya la contribució ha estat realitzada per l'Oscar MolinaSeniority systems - schemes that allot improving employment rights or benefits to employees as their length of employment increases - have not been widely studied. This report provides the first comprehensive study comparing the design and spread of seniority-based entitlements (SBEs) in Europe and mapping related policy debates. It is primarily based on contributions from the Network of Eurofound Correspondents, covering the 28 EU Member States and Norway, but also presents aggregate seniority-earnings curves for the EU based on data from the Structure of Earnings Survey. The aim of the report is to take stock of the currently existing different types of SBEs in the private and public sectors. It concludes that despite an obvious trend to remove them from regulations or reform them, a substantial amount of such entitlements is here to stay. Paradoxically, countries which have regulations on seniority pay in place tend to have flatter aggregate seniority-earnings curves than countries without such regulations

    Minimum wages in 2023 : annual review

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    Aquesta publicació s'elabora a partir de les contribucions de cadascú dels membres nacionals que integren la Network of Eurofound Correspondents. Pel cas d'Espanya la contribució ha estat realitzada per l'Oscar Molina (veure annex Network of Eurofound Correspondents)The 2023 annual review of minimum wages was prepared in the context of unprecedented inflation across Europe. While this led to hefty increases in nominal wage rates in many countries, it was in many cases not enough to maintain workers' purchasing power. Based on developments over the last decade, this report shows that, overall, minimum wage earners in nearly all countries saw their purchasing power rising, the gap between their wages and average wages narrowing, and to some degree growth exceeding labour productivity development

    TRAF4 is a novel phosphoinositide-binding protein modulating tight junctions and favoring cell migration

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    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 4 (TRAF4) is frequently overexpressed in carcinomas, suggesting a specific role in cancer. Although TRAF4 protein is predominantly found at tight junctions (TJs) in normal mammary epithelial cells (MECs), it accumulates in the cytoplasm of malignant MECs. How TRAF4 is recruited and functions at TJs is unclear. Here we show that TRAF4 possesses a novel phosphoinositide (PIP)-binding domain crucial for its recruitment to TJs. Of interest, this property is shared by the other members of the TRAF protein family. Indeed, the TRAF domain of all TRAF proteins (TRAF1 to TRAF6) is a bona fide PIP-binding domain. Molecular and structural analyses revealed that the TRAF domain of TRAF4 exists as a trimer that binds up to three lipids using basic residues exposed at its surface. Cellular studies indicated that TRAF4 acts as a negative regulator of TJ and increases cell migration. These functions are dependent from its ability to interact with PIPs. Our results suggest that TRAF4 overexpression might contribute to breast cancer progression by destabilizing TJs and favoring cell migration
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