123 research outputs found

    Changes in quality of life, depression, general anxiety, and heart-focused anxiety after defibrillator implantation

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    Aims The Anxiety-CHF (Anxiety in patients with Chronic Heart Failure) study investigated heart-focused anxiety (HFA, with the dimensions fear, attention, and avoidance of physical activity), general anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QoL) in patients with heart failure. Psychological measures were assessed before and up to 2 years after the implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D). Methods and results One hundred thirty-two patients were enrolled in this monocentric prospective study (44/88 CRT-D/ICD, mean age 61 ± 14 years, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 31 ± 9%, and 29% women). Psychological assessment was performed before device implantation as well as after 5, 12, and 24 months. After device implantation, mean total HFA, HFA-fear, HFA-attention, general anxiety, and QoL improved significantly. Depression and HFA-related avoidance of physical activity did not change. CRT-D patients compared with ICD recipients and women compared with men reported worse QoL at baseline. Younger patients (<median of 63 years) had higher levels of general anxiety and lower levels of HFA-avoidance at baseline than older patients. After 24 months, groups no longer differed from each other on these scores. Patients with a history of shock or anti-tachycardia pacing (shock/ATP; N = 19) reported no improvements in psychological measures and had significantly higher total HFA and HFA-avoidance levels after 2 years than participants without shock/ATP. Conclusions Anxiety and QoL improved after device implantation, and depression and HFA-avoidance remained unchanged. HFA may be more pronounced after shock/ATP. Psychological counselling in these patients to reduce HFA and increase physical activity should be considered

    Inducibility of atrial fibrillation after catheter ablation predicts recurrences of atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis

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    Background Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is a component of standard care for patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). Procedural inducibility of AF following PVI has been suggested as predictor of AF recurrence but is discussed controversially. This meta-analysis aimed at evaluating the relevance of electrophysiological inducibility of AF following PVI for future AF recurrences. Methods A literature search of MEDLINE and Web of Science was performed until April 2020. Prospective trials of PVI in patients with AF and post-procedural atrial stimulation to test for inducibility of AF as well as adequate follow-up for AF recurrence (defined as AF >10 s to >10 min at follow-up) were included. Odds ratios (ORs) were analyzed using random-effects models. Results A total of 11 trials with 1544 patients (follow-up 7–39 months, age 56 ± 6 years, predominantly male 74 ± 6%) were included. Inducibility of AF post-PVI was predictive for AF recurrence during follow-up (OR 2.08; 95% CI 1.25 to 3.46). Prediction for AF recurrence at follow-up was better for patients with paroxysmal AF (OR 4.06; 95% CI 1.39 to 11.91), stimulation in the CS (OR 2.82, 95% CI 1.17 to 6.79). A trend towards higher ORs was seen without the use of isoproterenol (OR 2.43; 95% CI 1.17 to 5.07), as well as few stimulations during induction and a short definition of AF in meta-regression analyses. Conclusions Electrophysiological inducibility of AF following PVI was predictive for future recurrence of AF, in particular in patients with paroxysmal AF, stimulation in only CS and no use of isoproterenol

    Heart-Focused Anxiety, General Anxiety, Depression and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Pulmonary Vein Isolation

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    (1) Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with anxiety, depression, and chronic stress, and vice versa. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential effects of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) on psychological factors. (2) Methods: Psychological assessment was performed before PVI as well as after six months. (3) Results: A total of 118 patients [age 64 ± 9 years, 69% male, left ventricular ejection fraction 57 ± 8%, 56% paroxysmal AF] undergoing PVI were included. After PVI, significant improvements were observed in the mean total heart-focused anxiety (HFA) score, as well as in the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) sub-scores: HFA attention, HFA fear, and HFA avoidance scores. Subgroup analyses showed an association of improvement with freedom of documented AF recurrence. Mean scores of general anxiety and depression evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) decreased significantly after PVI in all subgroups regardless of AF recurrence. Further, both physical and mental composite scores of the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) increased significantly from baseline. (4) Conclusions: PVI results in a significant reduction in HFA. Improvements in general anxiety and depressive symptoms did not seem to be related only to rhythm control per se. Therefore, CAQ may represent a more specific evaluation tool as HADS in patients with AF

    Prediction of conduction disturbances in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement

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    Aim Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) can cause intraventricular conduction disturbances (ICA), particularly left bundle branch block (BBB) and high-degree atrioventricular block (HAVB). The aim of this study was to investigate clinical, anatomical, procedural, and electrophysiological parameters predicting ICA after TAVR. Methods Patients with severe aortic stenosis (n=203) without pacing devices undergoing TAVR with a self-expanding (n=103) or balloon-expanding (n=100) valve were enrolled. Clinical and anatomical parameters, such as length of the membranous septum (MS) and implantation depth, were assessed. His-ventricular interval (HVi) before and after implantation was determined. 12-lead-electrocardiograms (ECG) before, during and after 3 and 30 days after TAVR were analyzed for detection of any ICA. Results Among 203 consecutive patients (aortic valve area 0.78±0.18 cm2 , age 80±6 years, 54% male, left ventricular ejection fraction 52±10%), TAVR led to a signifcant prolongation of infranodal conduction in all patients from 49±10 ms to 59±16 ms (p=0.01). The HVi prolongation was independent of valve types, occurrence of HAVB or ICA. Fifteen patients (7%) developed HAVB requiring permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation and 63 patients (31%) developed ICA within 30 days. Pre-existing BBB (OR 11.64; 95% CI 2.87–47.20; p=0.001), new-onset left BBB (OR 15.72; 95% CI 3.05–81.03; p=0.001), and diabetes mellitus (OR 3.88; 95% CI 1.30–15.99; p=0.02) independently predicted HAVB requiring PPM. Neither pre-existing right BBB, a prolonged postHVi, increases in PR duration, any of the TAVR implantation procedural and anatomic nor echocardiographic characteristics were predictive for later HAVB. Conclusions New-onset left BBB and diabetes mellitus independently predicted HAVB requiring PPM after TAVR and helped to identify patients at risk. Electrophysiologic study (EPS) of atrioventricular conduction was neither specifc nor predictive of HAVB and can be skipped. Trial registration number NCT04128384 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov)

    Outcomes of conduction system pacing compared to right ventricular pacing as a primary strategy for treating bradyarrhythmia: systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background Right ventricular pacing (RVP) may cause electrical and mechanical desynchrony leading to impaired left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). We investigated the outcomes of RVP with His bundle pacing (HBP) and left bundle branch pacing (LBBP) for patients requiring a de novo permanent pacemaker (PPM) for bradyarrhythmia. Methods and results Systematic review of randomized clinical trials and observational studies comparing HBP or LBP with RVP for de novo PPM implantation between 01 January 2013 and 17 November 2020 was performed. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses of the effect of pacing technology on outcomes were performed. Study outcomes included all-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalization (HFH), LVEF, QRS duration, lead revision, atrial fibrillation, procedure parameters, and pacing metrics. Overall, 9 studies were included (6 observational, 3 randomised). HBP compared with RVP was associated with decreased HFH (risk ratio [RR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49–0.94), preservation of LVEF (mean difference [MD] 0.81, 95% CI − 1.23 to 2.85 vs. − 5.72, 95% CI − 7.64 to -3.79), increased procedure duration (MD 15.17 min, 95% CI 11.30–19.04), and increased lead revisions (RR 5.83, 95% CI 2.17–15.70, p = 0.0005). LBBP compared with RVP was associated with shorter paced QRS durations (MD 5.6 ms, 95% CI − 6.4 to 17.6) vs. (51.0 ms, 95% CI 39.2–62.9) and increased procedure duration (MD 37.78 min, 95% CI 20.04–55.51). Conclusion Of the limited studies published, this meta-analysis found that HBP and LBBP were superior to RVP in maintaining physiological ventricular activation as an initial pacing strategy

    Effects of Arteriovenous Fistula on Blood Pressure in Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease: A Systematic Meta-Analysis

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    Background Central arteriovenous fistula ( AVF ) creation is under investigation for treatment of severe hypertension. We evaluated the effects of AVF for initiation of hemodialysis on systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure in patients with end-stage renal disease. Methods and Results Data search included PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. A systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed studies reporting the effects of the creation/ligation of an AVF on blood pressure in patients with end-stage renal disease was performed according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis), PRISMA -P (PRISMA for systematic review protocols), and ROBINS-I (Risk of Bias in Non-Randomized Studies) criteria by the Cochrane Bias Methods Group. All studies in which the results could have been biased by hemodialysis were excluded. A total of 14 trials including 412 patients with end-stage renal disease ( AVF creation, n=185; AVF ligation, n=227) fulfilled the criteria and were subsequently analyzed. Average blood pressure in patients with no/closed AVF was 140.5/77.6 mm Hg with a mean arterial blood pressure of 96.1 mm Hg. Following creation of AVF , systolic blood pressure significantly decreased by 8.7 mm Hg ( P<0.001), diastolic blood pressure by 5.9 mm Hg ( P<0.001), and mean arterial blood pressure by 6.6 mm Hg ( P=0.02), whereas after ligation systolic blood pressure increased by 5.2 mm Hg ( P=0.07), diastolic blood pressure by 3.8 mm Hg ( P=0.02), and mean arterial blood pressure by 3.7 mm Hg ( P=0.07) during short- to long-term follow-up. Conclusions Creation of AVF significantly decreases blood pressure in patients with end-stage renal disease, whereas blood pressure tends to increase after ligation. These findings illustrate the hemodynamic consequences of AVF which are under investigation for severe hypertension

    Therapeutic approaches in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: past, present, and future

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    In contrast to the wealth of proven therapies for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), therapeutic efforts in the past have failed to improve outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Moreover, to this day, diagnosis of HFpEF remains controversial. However, there is growing appreciation that HFpEF represents a heterogeneous syndrome with various phenotypes and comorbidities which are hardly to differentiate solely by LVEF and might benefit from individually tailored approaches. These hypotheses are supported by the recently presented PARAGON-HF trial. Although treatment with LCZ696 did not result in a significantly lower rate of total hospitalizations for heart failure and death from cardiovascular causes among HFpEF patients, subanalyses suggest beneficial effects in female patients and those with an LVEF between 45 and 57%. In the future, prospective randomized trials should focus on dedicated, well-defined subgroups based on various information such as clinical characteristics, biomarker levels, and imaging modalities. These could clarify the role of LCZ696 in selected individuals. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors have just proven efficient in HFrEF patients and are currently also studied in large prospective clinical trials enrolling HFpEF patients. In addition, several novel disease-modifying drugs that pursue different strategies such as targeting cardiac inflammation and fibrosis have delivered preliminary optimistic results and are subject of further research. Moreover, innovative device therapies may enhance management of HFpEF, but need prospective adequately powered clinical trials to confirm safety and efficacy regarding clinical outcomes. This review highlights the past, present, and future therapeutic approaches in HFpEF

    Therapeutic approaches in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: past, present, and future

    Get PDF
    In contrast to the wealth of proven therapies for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), therapeutic efforts in the past have failed to improve outcomes in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Moreover, to this day, diagnosis of HFpEF remains controversial. However, there is growing appreciation that HFpEF represents a heterogeneous syndrome with various phenotypes and comorbidities which are hardly to differentiate solely by LVEF and might benefit from individually tailored approaches. These hypotheses are supported by the recently presented PARAGON-HF trial. Although treatment with LCZ696 did not result in a significantly lower rate of total hospitalizations for heart failure and death from cardiovascular causes among HFpEF patients, subanalyses suggest beneficial effects in female patients and those with an LVEF between 45 and 57%. In the future, prospective randomized trials should focus on dedicated, well-defined subgroups based on various information such as clinical characteristics, biomarker levels, and imaging modalities. These could clarify the role of LCZ696 in selected individuals. Furthermore, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors have just proven efficient in HFrEF patients and are currently also studied in large prospective clinical trials enrolling HFpEF patients. In addition, several novel disease-modifying drugs that pursue different strategies such as targeting cardiac inflammation and fibrosis have delivered preliminary optimistic results and are subject of further research. Moreover, innovative device therapies may enhance management of HFpEF, but need prospective adequately powered clinical trials to confirm safety and efficacy regarding clinical outcomes. This review highlights the past, present, and future therapeutic approaches in HFpEF

    Hidden sodium in effervescent-tablet dietary supplements and over-the-counter drugs: a comparative cross-sectional study

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    Objective Dietary sodium intake represents a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality. The study sought to analyse the sodium content of effervescent dietary supplements and drugs in Germany and the USA. Design Comparative cross-sectional study. Setting and methods The sodium content of 39 dietary supplement effervescent tablets available in Germany was measured in May and June 2022 using optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled argon plasma. The sodium content of 33 common pharmacyonly effervescent tablets (over-the-counter (OTC) drugs) in Germany was obtained from the summary of product characteristics. We compared the sodium content of the measured German dietary supplement effervescent tablets to that of 51 dietary supplement effervescent tablets available in the USA (data: National Institutes of Health’s Dietary Supplement Label Database). Results The measured sodium content in the German dietary supplements was 283.9±122.6 mg sodium/tablet, equivalent to 14±6% of the maximum recommended daily sodium intake (MRDSI). Vitamin products had the highest (378.3±112.8 mg, 19±6% of MRDSI), and calcium products had the lowest mean sodium content (170.4±113.2 mg, 9±6% of MRDSI). Vitamin products contained significantly more sodium than magnesium (378.3 mg vs 232.7 mg; p=0.004), calcium (378.3 mg vs 170.4 mg; p=0.006) and mineral products (378.3 mg vs 191.6 mg; p=0.048). The sodium content measured in products available in Germany was higher when compared with the declared sodium content on the label of the products sold in the USA (283.9 mg vs 190.0 mg; p<0.001). The median summary of product characteristics-declared sodium content of a single dose of the German OTC drugs was 157.0 mg (IQR: 98.9–417.3 mg); pain/common cold drugs contained the most sodium (median: 452.1 mg; IQR: 351.3–474.0 mg). Conclusion Effervescent tablets of nutritional supplements and OTC drugs contain high amounts of sodium, which often is not disclosed
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