2,810 research outputs found

    Systematic {\em ab initio} study of the phase diagram of epitaxially strained SrTiO3_3

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    We use density-functional theory with the local-density approximation to study the structural and ferroelectric properties of SrTiO3_3 under misfit strains. Both the antiferrodistortive (AFD) and ferroelectric (FE) instabilities are considered. The rotation of the oxygen octahedra and the movement of the atoms are fully relaxed within the constraint of a fixed in-plane lattice constant. We find a rich misfit strain-induced phase transition sequence and is obtained only when the AFD distortion is taken into account. We also find that compressive misfit strains induce ferroelectricity in the tetragonal low temperature phase only whilst tensile strains induce ferroelectricity in the orthorhombic phases only. The calculated FE polarization for both the tetragonal and orthorhombic phases increases monotonically with the magnitude of the strains. The AFD rotation angle of the oxygen octahedra in the tetragonal phase increases dramatically as the misfit strain goes from the tensile to compressive strain region whilst it decreases slightly in the orthorhombic (FO4) phase. This reveals why the polarization in the epitaxially strained SrTiO3_3 would be larger when the tensile strain is applied, since the AFD distortion is found to reduce the FE instability and even to completely suppress it in the small strain region. Finally, our analysis of the average polar distortion and the charge density distribution suggests that both the Ti-O and Sr-O layers contribute significantly to the FE polarization

    The Emergent Landscape of Detecting EGFR Mutations Using Circulating Tumor DNA in Lung Cancer.

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    The advances in targeted therapies for lung cancer are based on the evaluation of specific gene mutations especially the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The assays largely depend on the acquisition of tumor tissue via biopsy before the initiation of therapy or after the onset of acquired resistance. However, the limitations of tissue biopsy including tumor heterogeneity and insufficient tissues for molecular testing are impotent clinical obstacles for mutation analysis and lung cancer treatment. Due to the invasive procedure of tissue biopsy and the progressive development of drug-resistant EGFR mutations, the effective initial detection and continuous monitoring of EGFR mutations are still unmet requirements. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) detection is a promising biomarker for noninvasive assessment of cancer burden. Recent advancement of sensitive techniques in detecting EGFR mutations using ctDNA enables a broad range of clinical applications, including early detection of disease, prediction of treatment responses, and disease progression. This review not only introduces the biology and clinical implementations of ctDNA but also includes the updating information of recent advancement of techniques for detecting EGFR mutation using ctDNA in lung cancer

    Melatonin Therapy Prevents Programmed Hypertension and Nitric Oxide Deficiency in Offspring Exposed to Maternal Caloric Restriction

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    Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency is involved in the development of hypertension, a condition that can originate early in life. We examined whether NO deficiency contributed to programmed hypertension in offspring from mothers with calorie-restricted diets and whether melatonin therapy prevented this process. We examined 3-month-old male rat offspring from four maternal groups: untreated controls, 50% calorie-restricted (CR) rats, controls treated with melatonin (0.01% in drinking water), and CR rats treated with melatonin (CR + M). The effect of melatonin on nephrogenesis was analyzed using next-generation sequencing. The CR group developed hypertension associated with elevated plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), decreased L-arginine, decreased L-arginine-to-ADMA ratio (AAR), and decreased renal NO production. Maternal melatonin treatment prevented these effects. Melatonin prevented CR-induced renin and prorenin receptor expression. Renal angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protein levels in the M and CR + M groups were also significantly increased by melatonin therapy. Maternal melatonin therapy had long-term epigenetic effects on global gene expression in the kidneys of offspring. Conclusively, we attributed these protective effects of melatonin on CR-induced programmed hypertension to the reduction of plasma ADMA, restoration of plasma AAR, increase of renal NO level, alteration of renin-angiotensin system, and epigenetic changes in numerous genes

    Dynamic Power Index Adjustment Based On Battery Level

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    This disclosure describes techniques for dynamic adjustment of output power index of a wireless remote controller device based on a detected battery level of the device. The battery voltage level of the device is periodically measured. When the level falls below a predetermined threshold, the output power index is adjusted to ensure that the total transmit power from the controller device lies within a specified range. Dynamic adjustment of transmit power via the power index adjustment enables the controller device to have a transmit power that lies between the power spectral distribution (PSD) target and the PSD limit (maximum) over a range of battery voltage values