2,071 research outputs found

    Occlusion of acute distal brachial, proximal radial and ulnar arteries in a young thrower

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    SummaryAcute arterial occlusion, a rare condition in throwers, requires early detection and treatment for avoiding further complications. Thus far, no study has mentioned the occurrence of distal brachial, proximal radial, and ulnar artery occlusion in baseball players. An adolescent baseball pitcher presented with acute occlusion of the distal brachial, proximal radial, or ulnar artery. The patient complained of a cold sensation in the hand, wrist, and distal forearm. On physical examination, decreased surface skin temperature, and no radial pulse in the wrist suggested arterial occlusion. Emergency angiography validated the clinical suspicion, and identified the arteries and sites of vascular occlusion. Surgery was performed to alleviate the occlusions, thereby resolving the preoperative complaints and abnormal findings. Furthermore, postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the shoulder and elbow joint was conducted to determine the causes of arterial occlusion. The patient resumed pitching 4 months postoperatively, and has remained active and symptom free. Magnetic resonance imaging examination revealed no vascular abnormalities or bony or soft tissue in the shoulder or elbow region. With early detection and treatment, a favorable prognosis can be achieved in baseball pitchers with acute upper extremity arterial occlusion so that their pitching career is not jeopardized

    The Emergent Landscape of Detecting EGFR Mutations Using Circulating Tumor DNA in Lung Cancer.

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    The advances in targeted therapies for lung cancer are based on the evaluation of specific gene mutations especially the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The assays largely depend on the acquisition of tumor tissue via biopsy before the initiation of therapy or after the onset of acquired resistance. However, the limitations of tissue biopsy including tumor heterogeneity and insufficient tissues for molecular testing are impotent clinical obstacles for mutation analysis and lung cancer treatment. Due to the invasive procedure of tissue biopsy and the progressive development of drug-resistant EGFR mutations, the effective initial detection and continuous monitoring of EGFR mutations are still unmet requirements. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) detection is a promising biomarker for noninvasive assessment of cancer burden. Recent advancement of sensitive techniques in detecting EGFR mutations using ctDNA enables a broad range of clinical applications, including early detection of disease, prediction of treatment responses, and disease progression. This review not only introduces the biology and clinical implementations of ctDNA but also includes the updating information of recent advancement of techniques for detecting EGFR mutation using ctDNA in lung cancer

    Shape restricted regression with random Bernstein polynomials

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    Shape restricted regressions, including isotonic regression and concave regression as special cases, are studied using priors on Bernstein polynomials and Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. These priors have large supports, select only smooth functions, can easily incorporate geometric information into the prior, and can be generated without computational difficulty. Algorithms generating priors and posteriors are proposed, and simulation studies are conducted to illustrate the performance of this approach. Comparisons with the density-regression method of Dette et al. (2006) are included.Comment: Published at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/074921707000000157 in the IMS Lecture Notes Monograph Series (http://www.imstat.org/publications/lecnotes.htm) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    Using LC-MS with de novo software to fully characterize the multiple methylations of lysine residues in a recombinant fragment of an outer membrane protein from a virulent strain of Rickettsia prowazekii

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    The outer membrane protein B (OmpB) of the typhus group rickettsiae is an immunodominant antigen and has been shown to provide protection against typhus in animal models. Consequently, OmpB is currently being considered as a potential rickettsiae vaccine candidate to be used in humans. The OmpB from virulent strains are heavily methylated while the attenuated strains are hypomethylated. Western blot analysis of partially digested OmpB revealed that one of the reactive fragments was located at the N-terminus (fragment A, aa 33–272). Recently, we have over expressed, purified, and chemically methylated the recombinant fragment A from Rickettsia prowazekii (Ap). The methylated Ap was thoroughly characterized by LC/MS/MS on the ProteomeX workstation. The protein sequence of Ap with and without methylation was 87.7% and 100% identified, respectively. This high sequence coverage enabled us to determine the sites and extent of methylation on the lysine residues in Ap. All the lysine residues except the C-terminus lysine were either mono-, di- or tri-methylated. In addition, carbamylation on the N-terminus glycine was identified using a combination of denovo sequencing (DeNovoX) and the pattern recognition (SALSA) program with accurate mass measurement. We demonstrated that the use of peptide identification (SEQUEST) in combination with SALSA and denovo sequencing provided a useful means to characterize the sequence and posttranslational modifications of given proteins

    RISK OF SLEEP DISORDERS IN PATIENTS WITH DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS: A NATIONWIDE, POPULATION-BASED STUDY IN TAIWAN

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    Background: Decompression sickness (DCS) primarily manifests musculoskeletal pain, cutaneous manifestations, lymphatic symptoms, and neurological symptoms. DCS might affect the central nervous system and induce the stress in the patients, but few studies about the psychiatric morbidity after DCS have been conducted. This study aimed to investigate the association between DCS and the risk of developing psychiatric disorders. Subjects and methods: This study was a population-based, matched cohort design. A total of 738 enrolled patients, with 123 study subjects who had suffered from DCS, and 615 controls matched for sex and age, from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Databank from 2000-2010 in Taiwan, and selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. After adjusting for the confounding factors, Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to compare the risk of developing psychiatric disorders during the 10 years of follow-up period. Results: Of the study subjects, 10 (8.13%) developed psychiatric disorders when compared to 35 (5.69%) in the control group. The study subjects were more likely to develop psychiatric disorders (crude hazard ratio [HR]: 2.79 (95% CI=1.37-5.69, P<0.01). After adjusting for sex, age, monthly income, urbanization level, geographic region, and comorbidities, the adjusted HR was 3.83 (95% CI=1.60-9.16, P<0.01). Sleep disorders was associated with DCS with the adjusted HR as 5.74 (95% CI=1.04-31.56, P<0.01). Hyperbaric oxygenation therapy was not associated with a lower risk of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: Patients who suffered from DCS have a 3.8-fold risk of developing psychiatric disorders, and a 5.7-fold risk of sleep disorders. This finding is a reminder for the clinicians that a regular psychiatric follow-up might well be needed for these patients

    Profiling time course expression of virus genes---an illustration of Bayesian inference under shape restrictions

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    There have been several studies of the genome-wide temporal transcriptional program of viruses, based on microarray experiments, which are generally useful in the construction of gene regulation network. It seems that biological interpretations in these studies are directly based on the normalized data and some crude statistics, which provide rough estimates of limited features of the profile and may incur biases. This paper introduces a hierarchical Bayesian shape restricted regression method for making inference on the time course expression of virus genes. Estimates of many salient features of the expression profile like onset time, inflection point, maximum value, time to maximum value, area under curve, etc. can be obtained immediately by this method. Applying this method to a baculovirus microarray time course expression data set, we indicate that many biological questions can be formulated quantitatively and we are able to offer insights into the baculovirus biology.Comment: Published in at http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/09-AOAS258 the Annals of Applied Statistics (http://www.imstat.org/aoas/) by the Institute of Mathematical Statistics (http://www.imstat.org

    Influence of Step Length and Cadence on the Sharing of the Total Support Moments Between the Lower Limbs During Level Walking

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    The current study aimed to investigate the effects of walking speed on the inter-limb sharing of whole body support in terms of total support moments (Ms) during walking. A multiple linear regression model was conducted to explore the relationship between gait speed in terms of step length and cadence, and the difference of the first and second peaks of the Ms (DMs) during walking. The DMs were found to increase with either increased step length or cadence. Walking with greater speed relied more on the leading limb to provide support for the forward progression of the body. In addition, variations of gait speed parameters affected the load-sharing pattern between the lower limbs during weight transfer of walking. Gait speed parameters have to be taken as covariates when analysing the coordination of the kinetics between lower limbs
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