921 research outputs found

    Genome-wide identification of the expansin gene family in netted melon and their transcriptional responses to fruit peel cracking

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    IntroductionFruit cracking not only affects the appearance of netted melons (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) but also decreases their marketability.MethodsHerein, to comprehensively understand the role of expansin (EXP) proteins in netted melon, bioinformatics methods were employed to discover the EXP gene family in the melon genome and analyze its characteristic features. Furthermore, transcriptomics analysis was performed to determine the expression patterns of melon EXP (CmEXP) genes in crack-tolerant and crack-susceptible netted melon varieties.DiscussionThirty-three CmEXP genes were identified. Chromosomal location analysis revealed that CmEXP gene distribution was uneven on 12 chromosomes. In addition, phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that CmEXP genes could be categorized into four subgroups, among which the EXPA subgroup had the most members. The same subgroup members shared similar protein motifs and gene structures. Thirteen duplicate events were identified in the 33 CmEXP genes. Collinearity analysis revealed that the CmEXP genes had 50, 50, and 44 orthologous genes with EXP genes in cucumber, watermelon, and Arabidopsis, respectively. However, only nine orthologous EXP genes were observed in rice. Promoter cis-acting element analysis demonstrated that numerous cis-acting elements in the upstream promoter region of CmEXP genes participate in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Transcriptomics analysis revealed 14 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the non-cracked fruit peels between the crack-tolerant variety ‘Xizhoumi 17’ (N17) and the crack-susceptible variety ‘Xizhoumi 25’ (N25). Among the 14 genes, 11 were upregulated, whereas the remaining three were downregulated in N17. In the non-cracked (N25) and cracked (C25) fruit peels of ‘Xizhoumi 25’, 24 DEGs were identified, and 4 of them were upregulated, whereas the remaining 20 were downregulated in N25. In the two datasets, only CmEXPB1 exhibited consistently upregulated expression, indicating its importance in the fruit peel crack resistance of netted melon. Transcription factor prediction revealed 56 potential transcription factors that regulate CmEXPB1 expression.ResultsOur study findings enrich the understanding of the CmEXP gene family and present candidate genes for the molecular breeding of fruit peel crack resistance of netted melon

    Table_2_Genome-wide identification of the expansin gene family in netted melon and their transcriptional responses to fruit peel cracking.xls

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    IntroductionFruit cracking not only affects the appearance of netted melons (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) but also decreases their marketability.MethodsHerein, to comprehensively understand the role of expansin (EXP) proteins in netted melon, bioinformatics methods were employed to discover the EXP gene family in the melon genome and analyze its characteristic features. Furthermore, transcriptomics analysis was performed to determine the expression patterns of melon EXP (CmEXP) genes in crack-tolerant and crack-susceptible netted melon varieties.DiscussionThirty-three CmEXP genes were identified. Chromosomal location analysis revealed that CmEXP gene distribution was uneven on 12 chromosomes. In addition, phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that CmEXP genes could be categorized into four subgroups, among which the EXPA subgroup had the most members. The same subgroup members shared similar protein motifs and gene structures. Thirteen duplicate events were identified in the 33 CmEXP genes. Collinearity analysis revealed that the CmEXP genes had 50, 50, and 44 orthologous genes with EXP genes in cucumber, watermelon, and Arabidopsis, respectively. However, only nine orthologous EXP genes were observed in rice. Promoter cis-acting element analysis demonstrated that numerous cis-acting elements in the upstream promoter region of CmEXP genes participate in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Transcriptomics analysis revealed 14 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the non-cracked fruit peels between the crack-tolerant variety ‘Xizhoumi 17’ (N17) and the crack-susceptible variety ‘Xizhoumi 25’ (N25). Among the 14 genes, 11 were upregulated, whereas the remaining three were downregulated in N17. In the non-cracked (N25) and cracked (C25) fruit peels of ‘Xizhoumi 25’, 24 DEGs were identified, and 4 of them were upregulated, whereas the remaining 20 were downregulated in N25. In the two datasets, only CmEXPB1 exhibited consistently upregulated expression, indicating its importance in the fruit peel crack resistance of netted melon. Transcription factor prediction revealed 56 potential transcription factors that regulate CmEXPB1 expression.ResultsOur study findings enrich the understanding of the CmEXP gene family and present candidate genes for the molecular breeding of fruit peel crack resistance of netted melon.</p

    Table_1_Genome-wide identification of the expansin gene family in netted melon and their transcriptional responses to fruit peel cracking.docx

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    IntroductionFruit cracking not only affects the appearance of netted melons (Cucumis melo L. var. reticulatus Naud.) but also decreases their marketability.MethodsHerein, to comprehensively understand the role of expansin (EXP) proteins in netted melon, bioinformatics methods were employed to discover the EXP gene family in the melon genome and analyze its characteristic features. Furthermore, transcriptomics analysis was performed to determine the expression patterns of melon EXP (CmEXP) genes in crack-tolerant and crack-susceptible netted melon varieties.DiscussionThirty-three CmEXP genes were identified. Chromosomal location analysis revealed that CmEXP gene distribution was uneven on 12 chromosomes. In addition, phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that CmEXP genes could be categorized into four subgroups, among which the EXPA subgroup had the most members. The same subgroup members shared similar protein motifs and gene structures. Thirteen duplicate events were identified in the 33 CmEXP genes. Collinearity analysis revealed that the CmEXP genes had 50, 50, and 44 orthologous genes with EXP genes in cucumber, watermelon, and Arabidopsis, respectively. However, only nine orthologous EXP genes were observed in rice. Promoter cis-acting element analysis demonstrated that numerous cis-acting elements in the upstream promoter region of CmEXP genes participate in plant growth, development, and environmental stress responses. Transcriptomics analysis revealed 14 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the non-cracked fruit peels between the crack-tolerant variety ‘Xizhoumi 17’ (N17) and the crack-susceptible variety ‘Xizhoumi 25’ (N25). Among the 14 genes, 11 were upregulated, whereas the remaining three were downregulated in N17. In the non-cracked (N25) and cracked (C25) fruit peels of ‘Xizhoumi 25’, 24 DEGs were identified, and 4 of them were upregulated, whereas the remaining 20 were downregulated in N25. In the two datasets, only CmEXPB1 exhibited consistently upregulated expression, indicating its importance in the fruit peel crack resistance of netted melon. Transcription factor prediction revealed 56 potential transcription factors that regulate CmEXPB1 expression.ResultsOur study findings enrich the understanding of the CmEXP gene family and present candidate genes for the molecular breeding of fruit peel crack resistance of netted melon.</p

    Image5_Prognostic value of long non-coding RNA MALAT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma: A study based on multi-omics analysis and RT-PCR validation.JPEG

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    Background: This study aimed to explore the relationship between MALAT1 and the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods: We constructed a MALAT1 protein-protein interaction network using the STRING database and a network of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) using the StarBase database. Using data from the GEPIA2 database, we studied the association between genes in these networks and survival of patients with HCC. The potential mechanisms underlying the relationship between MALAT1 and HCC prognosis were studied using combined data from RNA sequencing, DNA methylation, and somatic mutation data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) liver cancer cohort. Tumor tissues and 19 paired adjacent non-tumor tissues (PANTs) from HCC patients who underwent radical resection were analyzed for MALAT1 mRNA levels using real-time PCR, and associations of MALAT1 expression with clinicopathological features or prognosis of patients were analyzed using log-rank test and Gehan-Breslow-Wilcoxon test.Results: Five interacting proteins and five target genes of MALAT1 in the ceRNA network significantly correlated with poor survival of patients with HCC (p Conclusion:MALAT1 is overexpressed in HCC, and higher expression is associated with worse prognosis. MALAT1 mRNA level may serve as a prognostic marker for patients with HCC after hepatectomy.</p

    Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and Genetic Experiment Reveal Changes in Cell Signaling Pathways Induced by α-Synuclein Overexpression

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    Abnormal accumulation of alpha synuclein (α-Syn) in sporadic and familial Parkinson’s disease (PD) may be a key step in its pathogenesis. In this study, the expression matrix of the GSE95427 dataset after α-Syn overexpression in human glioma cell line H4 was obtained from the GEO database. We used the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) method to reanalyze this dataset to evaluate the possible functions of α-Syn. The results showed that the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) signal was significantly activated in α-Syn-overexpressing cells, and oxidative phosphorylation signal, extracellular matrix signal, cell cycle related signal and fatty acid metabolism signal were significantly inhibited. Moreover, we employed the α-Syn-expressing transgenic Drosophila model of Parkinson’s disease and knocked-down eiger, a TNF superfamily ligand homologue, indicating that the TNF-α pathway plays a role in the common pathogenesis of synucleinopathies. Our analysis based on GSEA data provides more clues for a better understanding of α-Syn function

    Integrating single‐cell RNA sequencing with spatial transcriptomics reveals an immune landscape of human myometrium during labour

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    Abstract Background The transition of the myometrium from a quiescent to a contractile state during labour is known to involve inflammation, which is characterized by the infiltration of immune cells and the secretion of cytokines. However, the specific cellular mechanisms underlying inflammation in the myometrium during human parturition are not yet fully understood. Methods Through the analysis of transcriptomics, proteomics, and cytokine arrays, the inflammation in the human myometrium during labour was revealed. By performing single‐cell RNA sequencing (scRNA‐seq) and spatiotemporal transcriptomic (ST) analyses on human myometrium in term in labour (TIL) and term in non‐labour (TNL), we established a comprehensive landscape of immune cells, their transcriptional characteristics, distribution, function and intercellular communications during labour. Histological staining, flow cytometry, and western blotting were applied to validate some results from scRNA‐seq and ST. Results Our analysis identified immune cell types, including monocytes, neutrophils, T cells, natural killer (NK) cells and B cells, present in the myometrium. TIL myometrium had a higher proportion of monocytes and neutrophils than TNL myometrium. Furthermore, the scRNA‐seq analysis showed an increase in M1 macrophages in TIL myometrium. CXCL8 expression was mainly observed in neutrophils and increased in TIL myometrium. CCL3 and CCL4 were principally expressed in M2 macrophages and neutrophils‐6, and decreased during labour; XCL1 and XCL2 were specifically expressed in NK cells, and decreased during labour. Analysis of cytokine receptor expression revealed an increase in IL1R2, which primarily expressed in neutrophils. Finally, we visualized the spatial proximity of representative cytokines, contraction‐associated genes, and corresponding receptors in ST to demonstrate their location within the myometrium. Conclusions Our analysis comprehensively revealed changes in immune cells, cytokines, and cytokine receptors during labour. It provided a valuable resource to detect and characterize inflammatory changes, yielding insights into the immune mechanisms underlying labour

    Machine learning-based risk model incorporating tumor immune and stromal contexture predicts cancer prognosis and immunotherapy efficacy

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    Summary: The immune and stromal contexture within the tumor microenvironment (TME) interact with cancer cells and jointly determine disease process and therapeutic response. We aimed at developing a risk scoring model based on TME-related genes of squamous cell lung cancer to predict patient prognosis and immunotherapeutic response. TME-related genes were identified through exploring genes that correlated with immune scores and stromal scores. LASSO-Cox regression model was used to establish the TME-related risk scoring (TMErisk) model. A TMErisk model containing six genes was established. High TMErisk correlated with unfavorable OS in LUSC patients and this association was validated in multiple NSCLC datasets. Genes involved in pathways associated with immunosuppressive microenvironment were enriched in the high TMErisk group. Tumors with high TMErisk showed elevated infiltration of immunosuppressive cells. High TMErisk predicted worse immunotherapeutic response and prognosis across multiple carcinomas. TMErisk model could serve as a robust biomarker for predicting OS and immunotherapeutic response

    Disconnection between plant–microbial nutrient limitation across forest biomes

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    11 páginas.- 7 figuras.- 1 tabla.- 41 referencias.- Additional supporting information can be found online in the Supporting Information section at the end of this article..- Read the free Plain Language Summary for this article on the Journal blog.Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are essential elements limiting plant–microbial growth in forest ecosystems. However, whether the pattern of plant–microbe nutrient limitation is consistent across forest biomes and the associated potential mechanisms remain largely unclear, limiting us to better understand the biogeochemical processes under future climate change. Here, we investigated patterns of plant–microbial N/P limitation in forests across a wide environmental gradient and biomes in China to explore the divergence of plant–microbial N/P limitation and the driving mechanisms. We revealed that 42.6% of the N/P limitation between plant–microbial communities was disconnected. Patterns in plant–microbial N/P limitations were consistent only for 17.7% of N and 39.7% of P. Geospatially, the inconsistency was more evident at mid-latitudes, where plants were mainly N limited and microbes were mainly P limited. Furthermore, our findings were consistent with the ecological stoichiometry of plants and microbes themselves and their requirements. Whereas plant N and P limitation was more strongly responsive to meteorological conditions and atmospheric deposition, that of microbes was more strongly responsive to soil chemistry, which exacerbated the plant–microbe N and P limitation divergence. Our work identified an important disconnection between plant and microbial N/P limitation, which should be incorporated into future Earth System Model to better predict forest biomes–climate change feedback. Read the free Plain Language Summary for this article on the Journal blog. © 2023 The Authors. Functional Ecology © 2023 British Ecological SocietyNational Natural Science Foundation of China, Grant/Award Number: 42207107; Catalan Government Grant, Grant/Award Number: SGR2017-1005; Fundación Ramón Areces grant, Grant/Award Number: CIVP20A6621; National Key Research and Development Program of China, Grant/Award Number: 2021YFD1901205; Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Agro-Ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Grant/Award Number: ISA2021101; Spanish Government, Grant/Award Number: PID2019-110521GB-I00 and PID2020-115770RB-I00; Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Grant/Award Number: XDB40020202Peer reviewe

    TREA: Tree-Structure Reasoning Schema for Conversational Recommendation

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    Conversational recommender systems (CRS) aim to timely trace the dynamic interests of users through dialogues and generate relevant responses for item recommendations. Recently, various external knowledge bases (especially knowledge graphs) are incorporated into CRS to enhance the understanding of conversation contexts. However, recent reasoning-based models heavily rely on simplified structures such as linear structures or fixed-hierarchical structures for causality reasoning, hence they cannot fully figure out sophisticated relationships among utterances with external knowledge. To address this, we propose a novel Tree structure Reasoning schEmA named TREA. TREA constructs a multi-hierarchical scalable tree as the reasoning structure to clarify the causal relationships between mentioned entities, and fully utilizes historical conversations to generate more reasonable and suitable responses for recommended results. Extensive experiments on two public CRS datasets have demonstrated the effectiveness of our approach.Comment: Accepted by ACL2023 main conferenc

    Image4_Prognostic value of long non-coding RNA MALAT1 in hepatocellular carcinoma: A study based on multi-omics analysis and RT-PCR validation.JPEG

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    Background: This study aimed to explore the relationship between MALAT1 and the prognosis of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Methods: We constructed a MALAT1 protein-protein interaction network using the STRING database and a network of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) using the StarBase database. Using data from the GEPIA2 database, we studied the association between genes in these networks and survival of patients with HCC. The potential mechanisms underlying the relationship between MALAT1 and HCC prognosis were studied using combined data from RNA sequencing, DNA methylation, and somatic mutation data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) liver cancer cohort. Tumor tissues and 19 paired adjacent non-tumor tissues (PANTs) from HCC patients who underwent radical resection were analyzed for MALAT1 mRNA levels using real-time PCR, and associations of MALAT1 expression with clinicopathological features or prognosis of patients were analyzed using log-rank test and Gehan-Breslow-Wilcoxon test.Results: Five interacting proteins and five target genes of MALAT1 in the ceRNA network significantly correlated with poor survival of patients with HCC (p Conclusion:MALAT1 is overexpressed in HCC, and higher expression is associated with worse prognosis. MALAT1 mRNA level may serve as a prognostic marker for patients with HCC after hepatectomy.</p
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