15,873 research outputs found

    Pakistan’s Agricultural Development since Independence: Intertemporal Trends and Explanations

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    The main objective of this paper has been to review Pakistan’s historical experience in agricultural development in terms of growth, income distribution, and rural poverty. While the long-term growth rates between 1949-50 and 1994-95 were satisfactory, the variations around the average have been rather too large over the various decades. Beginning with a stagnating sector of the 1950s, agriculture witnessed record growth rates during the Sixties. This was followed by the lowest growth rates of the early Seventies, and acceleration in the second half of the Seventies. The experience since 1979-80 has been mixed, but the growth rates have been rather low through the Eighties and the Nineties. The trends in income distribution and poverty varied directly in relation to the agricultural growth rates, especially when they were in excess of the threshold level of 4.5–5.0 percent per annum. In general, a growth rate of 5.0 percent or higher has induced positive changes in income distribution and poverty. In view of this positive association, the pursuit of a high growth policy in agriculture should guide Pakistan’s future development strategy. The efficiency of resource use, a greater dependence on modern technologies, and a minimisation of government intervention in the market mechanism are the essential pillars of the high growth strategy.

    Some Non-price Explanatory Variables in Fertiliser Demand: The Case of Irrigated Pakistan

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    It follows from the experience of World economies that rising and balanced use of fertilisers is the key factor in agricultural productivity [FAO (1995); SFS and STI (1996); Habib-ur-Rehman (1982) and Pinstrup-Anderson (1976)]. In the case of Pakistan the stepped up fertiliser use has been argued to be incritable to realise existing untapped yield potential of major crops [Johnston and Kilby (1975)] and to induce yield increasing technological change in future [John Mellor Associates and Asianics Agro-Dev. International (1993)]. Although proper malnutrition involves the use of primary, secondary and micro-nutrients, Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus and Potassium (K) or NPK is generally considered to be sufficient to harvest normal crop yields [FAO and IFA (1999)]. Given this situation, this paper looks at various factors that determine fertiliser use in Pakistan. Although price of fertiliser is a critical factor in this respect [Schultz (1965) and Johnston and Cownie (1969)], only non-price factors are considered in this paper due to limitations of data. Apart from this introductory section, the paper comprises of three more sections. The following Section 2 explains the data and the empirical model. Section 3 presents the results. Section 4 summarises the main findings along with their policy implications.

    Growth of Livestock Production in Pakistan: An Analysis

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    Agriculture is the backbone and single largest sector of Pakistan’s economy as its contribution to Gross Domestic Product (GDP) exceeded 25.3 percent during 1997-98. Crops, livestock, fishing and forestry sub-sectors being its main components, only crop and livestock sub-sectors are of critical importance. They accounted for 59.6 and 36.2 percent of the sector’s output respectively. Because of the ongoing process of structural transformation, agriculture’s share in the national economy is shrinking. From 39 percent of GDP in 1969-70 it has fallen to its current levels [Pakistan (1999a)]. The livestock sub-sector however has not followed suit. It has risen from 27.3 percent in 1969-70 to 36.2 percent in 1997-98. This trend in fact would be more pronounced if the national accounts did not underestimate the sub-sector’s components such as farm yard manure, dung cakes for household fuels and animal draft power. Apart from its contributions to national income, the livestock sub-sector is an active employer of thousands of landless poor and subsistence and semi-subsistence small farming families. Being a household activity, women are a special beneficiary of employment in the sub-sector. It is a major source of nourishment like milk, butter oil, eggs and meat and adds immensely to the health, nutrition and well being of rural as well as urban people. While animal fat and butter oil supplies are helpful in containing vegetable oil imports, many products of livestock origin such as wool and wool products, leather and leather made-ups and animal casings are exported and contribute significantly to hard earned foreign exchange [Ahmad, Ahmad and Chaudhry (1996)]. It follows from the above that the livestock sub-sector is likely to maintain its position as the dominant sub-sector of Pakistan’s agricultural sector or even that of the national economy for quite sometime in the future. Despite the rising and critical importance of the sub-sector, there, however, is no corresponding emphasis on analysing its achievements, problems and future prospects and likely policies to brighten these up. In view of this limitation, the present paper makes a limited attempt to study the growth process of the livestock sub-sector.

    The International Finance Corporation's MBA survey: how developing country firms rate local business school training

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    Graduate education in business administration was developed in the U.S. around the turn of the twentieth century. MBA and similar graduate-level business programs took hold more slowly in other countries, but the number of such programs expanded more rapidly from the 1960s onward. In an effort to determine what firms from these countries require from business school graduates, the IFC used its extensive contacts with these firms to conduct a survey of the quality of business education in these countries. The survey results imply that the strengths and weaknesses of developing and transition country MBAs seem to overlap with those of MBAs from the U.S.: managers in the U.S. and in the developing countries find that the technical and analytical skills of MBAs are well developed while the practical training/skills and communication/language skills of MBAs are significantly lacking. On the whole, only the African and Middle Eastern firms were significantly dissatisfied with the quality of local MBA graduates. The survey results show that MBAs worldwide are not fully satisfying the needs of firms. Each of the other regions of the world has its own particular weaknesses, while at the same time some common weaknesses (such as work experience and communication skills) stand out. These results show that a cookie-cutter approach to training MBAs cannot work. Rather, MBA programs have to be tailored to suit the needs of the local business community while also teaching common business fundamentals.Tertiary Education,ICT Policy and Strategies,Educational Sciences,Teaching and Learning,Primary Education,Tertiary Education,Teaching and Learning,ICT Policy and Strategies,Educational Sciences,Primary Education
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