182 research outputs found

    A Guide for Selection of Genetic Instruments in Mendelian Randomization Studies of Type 2 Diabetes and HbA1c: Toward an Integrated Approach

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    In this study we examine the instrument selection strategies currently used throughout the type 2 diabetes and HbA1c Mendelian randomization (MR) literature. We then argue for a more integrated and thorough approach, providing a framework to do this in the context of HbA1c and diabetes. We conducted a literature search for MR studies that have instrumented diabetes and/or HbA1c. We also used data from the UK Biobank (UKB) (N = 349,326) to calculate instrument strength metrics that are key in MR studies (the F statistic for average strength and R2 for total strength) with two different methods ("individual-level data regression" and Cragg-Donald formula). We used a 157-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) instrument for diabetes and a 51-SNP instrument (with partition into glycemic and erythrocytic as well) for HbA1c. Our literature search yielded 48 studies for diabetes and 22 for HbA1c. Our UKB empirical examples showed that irrespective of the method used to calculate metrics of strength and whether the instrument was the main one or included partition by function, the HbA1c genetic instrument is strong in terms of both average and total strength. For diabetes, a 157-SNP instrument was shown to have good average strength and total strength, but these were both substantially lesser than those of the HbA1c instrument. We provide a careful set of five recommendations to researchers who wish to genetically instrument type 2 diabetes and/or HbA1c. In MR studies of glycemia, investigators should take a more integrated approach when selecting genetic instruments, and we give specific guidance on how to do this

    Ethnic disparities in initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment in adults with type 2 diabetes in the UK, 1990-2017: A cohort study.

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    BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) disproportionately affects individuals of nonwhite ethnic origin. Timely and appropriate initiation and intensification of glucose-lowering therapy is key to reducing the risk of major vascular outcomes. Given that ethnic inequalities in outcomes may stem from differences in therapeutic management, the aim of this study was to identify ethnic differences in the timeliness of initiation and intensification of glucose-lowering therapy in individuals newly diagnosed with T2DM in the United Kingdom. METHODS AND FINDINGS: An observational cohort study using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink was conducted using 162,238 adults aged 18 and over diagnosed with T2DM between 1990 and 2017 (mean age 62.7 years, 55.2% male); 93% were of white ethnicity (n = 150,754), 5% were South Asian (n = 8,139), and 2.1% were black (n = 3,345). Ethnic differences in time to initiation and intensification of diabetes treatment were estimated at three time points (initiation of noninsulin monotherapy, intensification to noninsulin combination therapy, and intensification to insulin therapy) using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for factors a priori hypothesised to be associated with initiation and intensification: age, sex, deprivation, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass index (BMI), smoking status, comorbidities, consultations, medications, calendar year, and clustering by practice. Odds of experiencing therapeutic inertia (failure to intensify treatment within 12 months of HbA1c >7.5% [58 mmol/mol]), were estimated using multivariable logistic regression adjusted for the same hypothesised confounders. Noninsulin monotherapy was initiated earlier in South Asian and black groups (South Asian HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08-1.36, p < 0.001; black HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.05-1.59, p = 0.017). Correspondingly, no ethnic differences in therapeutic inertia were evident at initiation. Intensification with noninsulin combination therapy was slower in both nonwhite ethnic groups relative to white (South Asian HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.74-0.87, p < 0.001; black HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.70-0.90, p < 0.001); treatment inertia at this stage was greater in nonwhite groups relative to white (South Asian odds ratio [OR] 1.45, 95% CI 1.23-1.70, p < 0.001; black OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.09-1.87, p = 0.010). Intensification to insulin therapy was slower again for black groups relative to white groups (South Asian HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.41-0.58, p < 0.001; black HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.89, p = 0.012); correspondingly, treatment inertia was significantly higher in nonwhite groups at this stage relative to white groups (South Asian OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.89-3.80 p < 0.001; black OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.13-2.79, p = 0.013). At both stages of treatment intensification, nonwhite groups had fewer HbA1c measurements than white groups. Limitations included variable quality and completeness of routinely recorded data and a lack of information on medication adherence. CONCLUSIONS: In this large UK cohort, we found persuasive evidence that South Asian and black groups intensified to noninsulin combination therapy and insulin therapy more slowly than white groups and experienced greater therapeutic inertia following identification of uncontrolled HbA1c. Reasons for delays are multifactorial and may, in part, be related to poorer long-term monitoring of risk factors in nonwhite groups. Initiatives to improve timely and appropriate intensification of diabetes treatment are key to reducing disparities in downstream vascular outcomes in these populations

    Sex-differences in associations of LV structure and function measured by echocardiography with long-term risk of mortality and cardiovascular morbidity

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    BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) measures of the left ventricle (LV) predict outcomes in high risk individuals, but their prognostic value in the general population is unknown. We aimed to establish whether 3DE was associated with mortality and morbidity in a multi-ethnic community-based sample, if associations differed by sex, and explored potential mechanisms explaining sex differences. METHODS: 922 individuals (69.7 ± 6.2 years; 717 men) from the SABRE study underwent a health examination including echocardiography. Associations between 3DE LV measures (ejection fraction (EF), end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), LV remodeling index (LVRI) and LV sphericity index (LVSI), and all-cause mortality and a composite cardiovascular endpoint [comprising new onset (non)fatal coronary heart disease, heart failure hospitalization, new-onset arrhythmias and cardiovascular mortality] were determined using multivariable Cox regression over a median follow-up of 8 years (all-cause mortality) and 7 years (composite cardiovascular endpoint). RESULTS: There were 123 deaths and 151 composite cardiovascular endpoints. Lower EF, higher LV volumes and LVSI were associated with increased all-cause mortality, and higher LV volumes were associated with the composite cardiovascular endpoint independent of potential confounders. Associations between LV volumes, LVRI, LVSI, and mortality differed by sex (p interaction <0.1). In men increased LV volumes and LVSI and decreased LVRI and EF were associated with higher mortality, but associations were null or reversed in women (hazard ratios (95% CI) men vs. women: EDV 1.25 (1.05, 1.48) vs. 0.54 (0.26, 1.10); ESV, 1.36 (1.12, 1.63) vs. 0.59 (0.33, 1.04); LVRI, 0.79 (0.64, 0.96) vs. 1.70 (1.03, 2.80); LVSI, 1.27 (1.05, 1.54) vs. 0.61 (0.32, 1.15); and EF, 0.78 (0.66, 0.93) vs. 1.27 (0.69, 2.33). Similar sex differences were observed for associations with the composite cardiovascular outcome. Adjustment for LV diastolic stiffness and arterial stiffness marginally attenuated these differences. CONCLUSIONS: 3DE measures of LV volume and remodeling are associated with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular morbidity; however, some associations differ by sex. Sex-differences in LV remodeling patterns may influence mortality and morbidity risk in the general population

    The impact of health behaviours on incident cardiovascular disease in Europeans and South Asians--a prospective analysis in the UK SABRE study.

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    BACKGROUND: There is consistent evidence on the impact of health behaviours on risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in European populations. As South Asians in the UK have an excess risk of CVD and coronary heart disease (CHD) compared to Europeans, we investigated whether a similar association between combined health behaviours and risk of CVD and CHD among this high-risk group exists, and estimated the population impact. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a prospective cohort of 1090 Europeans and 1006 South Asians (40-69 y) without prevalent CVD at baseline (1988-1990), followed up for 21 years to 2011, there were 601 incident CVD events [Europeans n = 255; South Asians n = 346] of which 520 were CHD events [n = 207 and 313 respectively]. Participants scored between 0 to 4 points for a composite score including four baseline healthy behaviours (non-smoker, moderate alcohol intake, physically active, frequent fruit/vegetable intake). Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident CHD in Europeans who had three, two, one, and zero compared to four health behaviours were 1.33 (0.78-2.29), 1.96 (1.15-3.33), 1.36 (0.74-2.48) and 2.45 (1.18-5.10), respectively, p-trend = 0.025. In South Asians, corresponding HRs were 2.88 (1.33-6.24), 2.28 (1.06-4.91), 3.36 (1.53-7.39) and 3.48 (1.38-8.81), p-trend = 0.022. The results were similar for incident CVD; Europeans HR 2.12 (1.14-3.94), p-trend = 0.014; South Asians HR 2.73 (1.20-6.21), p-trend = 0.018. The population attributable fraction in Europeans was 43% for CHD and 28% for CVD. In South Asians it was 63% and 51% respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lack of adherence to four combined health behaviours was associated with 2 to 3-fold increased risk of incident CVD in Europeans and South Asians. A substantial population impact in the South Asian group indicates important potential for disease prevention in this high-risk group by adherence to healthy behaviours.The SABRE study was funded by the Wellcome Trust (082464/Z/07/Z) and British Heart Foundation (SP/07/001/23603). Support from NIHR Biomedical Research Centre funding scheme as well as the MRC Epidemiology Unit (MC_UU_12015/5 to NGF) is acknowledged.This is the final published version. It first appeared at http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0117364#ack
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