9,557 research outputs found

    Condensate wave function and elementary excitations of bosonic polar molecules: beyond the first Born approximation

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    We investigate the condensate wave function and elementary excitations of strongly interacting bosonic polar molecules in a harmonic trap, treating the scattering amplitude beyond the standard first Born approximation (FBA). By using an appropriate trial wave function in the variational method, effects of the leading order correction beyond the FBA have been investigated and shown to be significantly enhanced when the system is close to the phase boundary of collapse. How such leading order effect of going beyond the FBA can be observed in a realistic experiment is also discussed.Comment: 7 pages, 4 figure

    Biodiversity shapes tree species aggregations in tropical forests

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    Spatial patterns of conspecific trees are considered as the consequences of biological interactions and environmental influences. They also reflect species interactions in plant communities. However, biological attributes are often neglected while deliberating the factors shaping species distributions. As rising attentions are paid to spatial patterns of tropical forest trees, we noticed that seven Center of Tropical Forest Sites and four Forest Dynamic Plots in Asia and America have presented analogously high proportions of species with aggregated conspecific individuals coincidently. This phenomenon is distinctive and repudiates fundamental ecology hypotheses which suggested dispersed distributions of conspecific tropical trees due to intensive density and natural enemy pressures in tropical forests. We believe that similar aggregation patterns shared by these tropical forests implies the existence of structuring forces in biogeographical scale instead of habitat heterogeneity in local community scales as scientists have considered. To approach the factors contributing to this cross-continent spatial pattern of trees, we obtained and reviewed ecosystem attributes, including topography, temperature, precipitation, biodiversity, density, and biomass, of these forests. Here we show that the proportions of aggregated species are actually constants independent of any ecosystem attributes regardless the nature of these tropical forests. However, local biodiversity are the major factor determining the number of aggregated species and the aggregation of large individuals of these forests. Aggregation of large trees declines along rising biodiversity, while the numbers of aggregated species increase permanently along lifting biodiversity. We propose a possible equilibrium and saturated status of the tropical forests in accommodating aggregated species. Furthermore, the tight correlations of biodiversity and species aggregation strongly imply the importance of overlooked biological interactions in shaping the spatial patterns in the tropical forests

    Broadband negative refraction in stacked fishnet metamaterial

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    We demonstrate a scheme to utilize the stacked fishnet metamaterial for all-angle negative refraction and subwavelength imaging within a wide frequency range starting from zero frequency. The theoretical predictions are verified by the finite-difference-in-time-domain (FDTD) numerical simulations. The phenomena come from the negative evanescent coupling between the adjacent slab waveguides through the breathing air holes perforated on metal layers.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figure

    4,4′-[(5-Carb­oxy-1,3-phenyl­ene)bis­(­oxy)]dibenzoic acid

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    In the title compound, C21H14O8, the central benzene ring makes dihedral angles of 77.8 (6) and 75.9 (5)° with the outer benzene rings. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving carboxyl groups, forming one-dimensional ladders. Two-dimensional layers are formed by inter­penetration of these one-dimensional ladders