41 research outputs found

    Improving quality of intrapartum and immediate postpartum care in public facilities: experiences and lessons learned from Rajasthan state, India

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    Abstract Background In spite of considerable improvement in maternal and neonatal outcomes over the past decade in India, the current maternal mortality ratio and neonatal mortality rate are far from the Sustainable Development Goal¬†targets due to suboptimal quality of maternity care. A package of interventions for improving quality of intrapartum and immediate¬†postpartum care was co-designed with the Ministry of Health as the Dakshata program and implemented in public sector health facilities in selected districts in the state of Rajasthan of India since June 2015. This article describes the key strategies, interventions, results and challenges from four years of Dakshata program implementation. Methods We have conducted secondary analysis of program data (government data) collected from 202 public facilities across 20 districts of Rajasthan state. The data collected between June‚ÄďAugust 2015 (baseline) and the data collected between May-August 2019 (latest) were analyzed. The data sources included: facility assessments, service statistics, monthly progress reports. Results During the period of program implementation, there were 17,94,249 deliveries accounting for 70% of institutional deliveries in intervention districts. As a result of the intervention, there was a notable increase in competency of health care providers, availability of essential resources, achievement of labour room standards and adherence to evidence-based clinical standards. We also observed reductions in the proportion of referrals for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, postpartum hemorrhage and neonatal asphyxia by 11, 8 and 3 percentage points respectively. Similarly, data revealed a reduction in stillbirth rates in Dakshata intervention facilities (19.3 vs 15.3) compared to non-Dakshata facilities (21.8 vs 18). Conclusions Our experience and findings indicate that the quality of intrapartum and immediate postpartum care can be improved in low- and middle-income countries with the approach presented in this paper

    Book of Abstracts of the 2nd International Conference on Applied Mathematics and Computational Sciences (ICAMCS-2022)

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    It is a great privilege for us to present the abstract book of ICAMCS-2022 to the authors and the delegates of the event. We hope that you will find it useful, valuable, aspiring, and inspiring. This book is a record of abstracts of the keynote talks, invited talks, and papers presented by the participants, which indicates the progress and state of development in research at the time of writing the research article. It is an invaluable asset to all researchers. The book provides a permanent record of this asset. Conference Title: 2nd International Conference on Applied Mathematics and Computational SciencesConference Acronym: ICAMCS-2022Conference Date: 12-14 October 2022Conference Organizers: DIT University, Dehradun, IndiaConference Mode: Online (Virtual

    Abstracts of National Conference on Research and Developments in Material Processing, Modelling and Characterization 2020

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    This book presents the abstracts of the papers presented to the Online National Conference on Research and Developments in Material Processing, Modelling and Characterization 2020 (RDMPMC-2020) held on 26th and 27th August 2020 organized by the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Science in Association with the Department of Production and Industrial Engineering, National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, India. Conference Title: National Conference on Research and Developments in Material Processing, Modelling and Characterization 2020Conference Acronym: RDMPMC-2020Conference Date: 26‚Äď27 August 2020Conference Location:¬†Online (Virtual Mode)Conference Organizer: Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology JamshedpurCo-organizer: Department of Production and Industrial Engineering, National Institute of Technology Jamshedpur, Jharkhand, IndiaConference Sponsor: TEQIP-

    Advanced case of PKDL due to delayed treatment: A rare case report.

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    Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is clinical outcome of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and is thought to be the potential reservoir of parasite. Miltefosine (MF) is the only oral drug existing for treatment of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). Increased miltefosine tolerance in clinical isolates of Leishmania donovani has been reported and is one of the major concerns in the treatment of PKDL. Here, we report a highly ulcerated PKDL case that was successfully cured after miltefosine treatment

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    Not AvailableTillage is an important agricultural operation which influences soil properties, crop yield and environment. Nine combinations of three tillage practices including conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT) and zero tillage (ZT) were evaluated in fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) + cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) ‚Äď wheat (Triticum durum) cropping system for 5 years (2009‚Äď2014) on clay loam soil under limited irrigation. Continuous ZT practices significantly improved surface soil organic carbon, bulk density, infiltration rate and maximum water holding capacity. Carbon sequestration rate, soil organic carbon stock and soil enzymatic activities were relatively more under ZT than CT-CT practice. Higher fodder yield of sorghum + cowpea was recorded with CT (kharif) while wheat grain yield with ZT (rabi). However, the system productivity was statistically similar in all the tillage treatments on pooled data basis. The economic benefits were also maximum under ZT-ZT practice. The ZT-ZT practice recorded significantly lowest energy input (17.1 GJ ha‚ąí1 ) which resulted in highest energy use efficiency (13.6) and energy productivity (518 kg GJ‚ąí1 ). Thus, adoption of ZT significantly improved soil health, stabilized crop yield, increased profitability and energy use efficiency in the semi-arid agro-ecosystem.Not Availabl

    Not Available

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    Not AvailableTillage is an important agricultural operation which inÔ¨āuences soil properties, crop yield and environment. Nine combinations of three tillage practices including conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT) and zero tillage (ZT) were evaluated in fodder sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) + cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) ‚Äď wheat (Triticum durum) cropping system for 5 years (2009‚Äď2014) on clay loam soil under limited irrigation. Continuous ZT practices signiÔ¨Ācantly improved surface soil organic carbon, bulk density, inÔ¨Āltrationrateandmaximumwaterholdingcapacity.Carbonsequestration rate, soil organic carbon stock and soil enzymatic activities were relatively moreunderZTthanCT-CTpractice.Higherfodder yieldofsorghum+cowpea was recorded with CT (kharif) while wheat grain yield with ZT (rabi). However, the system productivity was statistically similar in all the tillage treatments on pooled data basis. The economic beneÔ¨Āts were also maximum under ZT-ZT practice. The ZT-ZT practice recorded signiÔ¨Ācantly lowest energy input (17.1 GJ ha‚ąí1) which resulted in highest energy use eÔ¨Éciency (13.6) and energy productivity (518 kg GJ‚ąí1). Thus, adoption of ZT signiÔ¨Ācantly improved soil health, stabilized crop yield, increased proÔ¨Ātability and energy use eÔ¨Éciency in the semi-arid agro-ecosystem.Not Availabl

    Accuracy of Frozen Section with Histopathological Report in an Institute

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    Introduction: Frozen section helps in rapid intra-operative diagnosis. It is commonly used during surgical procedures to detect malignancy so that modifications of surgery can be decided at the time of surgery on the table. Frozen section is also performed for evaluation of surgical margins and detection of lymph node metastasis. In addition it is applied for detection of unknown pathological processes.The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of frozen section diagnosis in comparison to gold standard histopathological diagnosis and to find concordance and discordance rate of frozen section with histopathological report. Methods: This was a cross sectional study of 41 frozen section samples done in the department of pathology of BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences from September 2014 to August 2015. All frozen section samples with their permanent tissue samples sent for final histopathological evaluation were included in the study. Results: The overall accuracy of frozen section diagnosis was 97%. The sensitivity was 94%, specificity was 87%, positive predictive value was 90% and negative predictive value was 93%. The concordance rate was 90.2% and the discordance rate was 9.8%. Conclusions: The results of frozen section varied in different organ systems and the common cause of discrepancy in our study were the gross sampling error and the interpretational error

    Effect of ondansetron on sensory level produced by intrathecal bupivacaine

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    Background: For spinal anesthesia there are drugs which can increase the level and quality of analgesia. Any drug which decreases sensory block level in spinal anesthesia is of great concern as it may need analgesic, sedative, supplement or even conversion to general anesthesia. Ondansetron is one such drug which has been reported to decrease the height of sensory block achieved after subarachnoid administration of bupivacaine. In this prospective observational study, we studied the effect of administration of ondansetron on the level of the sensory block achieved after subarachnoid blockade.Methods: In Group¬†II, 4¬†mg ondansetron was given and 15¬†mins before giving spinal anesthesia Group¬†II against control group receiving 2¬†ml saline intravenous (Group¬†I). 15¬†mins before giving spinal anesthesia. Both groups received 3.5¬†ml of bupivacaine heavy was given intrathecally. Sensory and motor block was assessed 5, 15, and 30¬†mins. We analyzed both highest spinal block level achieved and time to regress to L1 level.Results: We found that in Group¬†II both highest level of sensory block (T6 by median method) duration to regress to L1 level (1.43¬Ī0.22 hrs) was lesser as compared to group¬†I and Group¬†III T4 by median method and time to regress from T6 to L1 Group¬†I 2.03¬Ī0.06 hrs Group¬†III 1.84¬Ī0.27 hrs. Motor block did not differ between groups.Conclusions: We concluded that probably ondansetron was responsible for lower spinal block level and early recovery from spinal anesthesia after intrathecal bupivacaine and should not be given empirically for nausea and vomiting

    Paenibacillus lentimorbus Inoculation Enhances Tobacco Growth and Extenuates the Virulence of Cucumber mosaic virus.

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    Previous studies with Paenibacillus lentimorbus B-30488" (hereafter referred as B-30488), a plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolated from cow's milk, revealed its capabilities to improve plant quality under normal and stress conditions. Present study investigates its potential as a biocontrol agent against an economically important virus, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), in Nicotiana tabacum cv. White Burley plants and delineates the physical, biophysical, biochemical and molecular perturbations due to the trilateral interactions of PGPR-host-CMV. Soil inoculation of B-30488 enhanced the plant vigor while significantly decreased the virulence and virus RNA accumulation by ~12 fold (91%) in systemic leaves of CMV infected tobacco plants as compared to the control ones. Histology of these leaves revealed the improved tissue's health and least aging signs in B-30488 inoculated tobacco plants, with or without CMV infection, and showed lesser intercellular spaces between collenchyma cells, reduced amount of xyloglucans and pectins in connecting primary cells, and higher polyphenol accumulation in hypodermis layer extending to collenchyma cells. B-30488 inoculation has favorably maneuvered the essential biophysical (ion leakage and photosynthetic efficiency) and biochemical (sugar, proline, chlorophyll, malondialdehyde, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase) attributes of tobacco plants to positively regulate and release the virus stress. Moreover, activities of defense related enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase) induced due to CMV-infection were ameliorated with inoculation of B-30488, suggesting systemic induced resistance mediated protection against CMV in tobacco. The quantitative RT-PCR analyses of the genes related to normal plant development, stress and pathogenesis also corroborate well with the biochemical data and revealed the regulation (either up or down) of these genes in favor of plant to combat the CMV mediated stress. These improvements led tobacco plant to produce more flowers and seeds with no negative impact on plant health. The present study may advocate the applicability of B-30488 for crop yield improvement in virus infested areas
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