54 research outputs found

    Detecting regularities in soccer dynamics : a T-pattern approach

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    The dynamics of play during professional soccer matches are complex phenomena that traditional approaches to the quantification of team sports are not fully able to identify. The aim of this study was to detect such dynamics through an analysis of temporal patterns. In particular, the objective was to reveal the hidden yet stable structures which underlie the interactive situations that determine the attack actions of play in soccer. The methodological approach is based on observational design, supported by digital recordings and computer analysis. Data were analyzed with Theme 6 beta software, which detects the temporal and sequential structure of data sets, revealing repeated patterns that may regularly or irregularly occur within a period of observation. Theme detected many temporal patterns (T-patterns) in the soccer matches analyzed. Striking differences were found when won and lost matches were compared. The number of pattern occurrences and the number of different T-patterns detected was greater for lost matches and lower for the won matches, whereas the number of events coded was similar. Theme software and T-pattern enhance research opportunities by moving further than frequency-based analysis of performance, making this method an effective research and support tool for sports analysis. Our results indicate a need for further investigation upon the possible links between temporal structure detection and human observations in soccer performance. This approach could assist both soccer teams' staff and coaches in obtaining a greater understanding of game dynamics, providing information that current methods may overlook or not detect at all.La din√°mica del juego en partidos de f√ļtbol profesional es un fen√≥meno complejo que no ha estado resuelto de forma √≥ptima a trav√©s de las v√≠as tradicionales que han pretendido la cuantificaci√≥n en deportes de equipo. El objetivo de este estudio es el de detectar la din√°mica existente mediante un an√°lisis de patrones temporales. Espec√≠ficamente, se pretenden revelar las estructuras ocultas pero estables que subyacen a las situaciones interactivas que determinan las acciones de ataque en el f√ļtbol. El planteamiento metodol√≥gico se basa en un dise√Īo observacional, y con apoyo de registros digitales y an√°lisis informatizados. Los datos se analizaron mediante el programa Theme 6 beta, el cual permite detectar la estructura temporal y secuencial de las series de datos, poniendo de manifiesto patrones que regular o irregularmente ocurren repetidamente en un per√≠odo de observaci√≥n. El Theme ha detectado muchos patrones temporales (T-patterns) en los partidos de f√ļtbol analizados. Se hallaron notables diferencias entre los partidos ganados y perdidos. El n√ļmero de distintos T-patterns detectados fue mayor para los partidos perdidos, y menor para los ganados, mientras que el n√ļmero de eventos codificados fue similar. El programa Theme y los T-patterns mejoran las posibilidades investigadoras respecto a un an√°lisis de rendimiento basado en la frecuencia, y hacen que esta metodolog√≠a sea eficaz para la investigaci√≥n y constituya un apoyo procedimental en el an√°lisis del deporte.Nuestros resultados indican que se requieren posteriores investigaciones relativas a posibles conexiones entre la detecci√≥n de estas estructuras temporales y las observaciones humanas respecto al rendimiento en el f√ļtbol. Este planteamiento ser√≠a un apoyo tanto para los miembros de los equipos como para los entrenadores, permitiendo alcanzar una mejor comprensi√≥n de la din√°mica del juego y aportando una informaci√≥n que no ofrecen los m√©todos tradicionales. A din√Ęmica do jogo em competi√ß√Ķes de futebol de competi√ß√£o √© um fen√≥meno complexo que n√£o √© abordado de forma suficiente atrav√©s das vias tradicionais que se pretendem na qualifica√ß√£o em desportos de equipa. O objectivo deste estudo √© detectar a din√Ęmica existente mediante uma an√°lise de padr√Ķes temporais. Especificamente, pretende-se revelar as estructuras ocultas mas est√°veis subjacentes √†s situa√ß√Ķes interactivas que determinam as ac√ß√Ķes de ataque no futebol. O planeamento metodol√≥gico baseia-se no delineamento observacional, a registos digitais e a an√°lises informatizadas. Os dados foram analisados mediante o programa Theme 6 beta, o qual permite detectar a estrutura temporal e sequencial das s√©ries de dados, pondo em relevo padr√Ķes que regular ou irregularmente ocorrem repetidamente num per√≠odo de observa√ß√£o. O Theme detectou v√°rios padr√Ķes temporais (padr√Ķes-T) nos jogos de futebol analisados. Verificaram-se not√°veis diferen√ßas entre os jogos ganhos e perdidos. O n√ļmero de distintos padr√Ķes-T detectados foi maior para os jogos perdidos, e menor para os ganhos, enquanto que o n√ļmero de eventos codificados foi semelhante. O programa Theme e os padr√Ķes-T melhoram as possibilidades de investiga√ß√£o a respeito da an√°lise de rendimento baseada na frequ√™ncia, fazendo com que esta metodologia seja eficaz para a investiga√ß√£o e se constitua como um suporte procedimental na an√°lise desportiva. Os resultados obtidos requerem posteriores investiga√ß√Ķes relativas √†s poss√≠veis conex√Ķes entre a detec√ß√£o destas estruturas temporais e as observa√ß√Ķes humanas relativas ao rendimento no futebol. Este planeamento seria um suporte tanto para os membros das equipas como para os treinadores, permitindo alcan√ßar uma melhor compreens√£o da din√Ęmica de jogo e fornecendo informa√ß√£o que n√£o se obt√©m atrav√©s dos m√©todos tradicionais

    T-patterns analysis in soccer games: Relationship between time and attack actions

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    Sports performance consists of a multiple series of strategies that tend to follow one another. Performance analysis in team sports is usually focused on primary (fundamental skill execution), secondary (scoring) and tertiary (match result) outcomes. While there is general agreement over measuring secondary and tertiary outcomes, literature does not show a unanimous agreement over a unique measure of the primary level of performance. 'e aim of this study was to investigate primary performance outcomes through an analysis of temporal patterns. In particular, we were interested in verifying if changes in tertiary performance outcomes may be related to changes in primary ones. We selected three soccer matches played by a top club during the Serie A league over the 2012-2013 season in which there was a change in match result between *rst and second half (tertiary level of performance). 'e methodological approach was based on observational design, supported by digital recordings and computer analysis. Data were analyzed with 'eme 6 beta software, which detects the temporal and sequential structure of datasets, revealing repeated patterns that may regularly or irregularly occur within a period of observation (Tpatterns). Striking di+erences were found comparing *rst and second half temporal patterns, especially when the *nal match outcome showed an improvement of the *rst half 's one. Our results suggest that 'eme software and T-pattern enhance research opportunities by identifying a useful tool to study the link between primary and tertiary level of performance, making this an e+ective research and support instrument for sports analysis

    How Game Location Affects Soccer Performance: T-Pattern Analysis of Attack Actions in Home and Away Matches

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    The influence of game location on performance has been widely examined in sport contexts. Concerning soccer, game-location affects positively the secondary and tertiary level of performance; however, there are fewer evidences about its effect on game structure (primary level of performance). This study aimed to detect the effect of game location on a primary level of performance in soccer. In particular, the objective was to reveal the hidden structures underlying the attack actions, in both home and away matches played by a top club (Serie A 2012/2013 - First League). The methodological approach was based on observational design, supported by digital recordings and T-pattern analysis. Data were analyzed with Theme 6.0 software. A quantitative analysis, with nonparametric and descriptive statistics, was carried out to test the hypotheses. A qualitative analysis on complex patterns was performed to get in-depth information on the game structure. This study showed that game tactics were significantly different, with home matches characterized by a more structured and varied game than away matches. Theme software, and the corresponding T-pattern detection algorithm, enhance research opportunities by going further than frequency-based analyses, making this method an effective tool in supporting sport performance analysis and training

    T-pattern analysis in soccer games: Relationship between time and attack actions

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    Sports performance consists of a multiple series of strategies that tend to follow one another. Performance analysis in team sports is usually focused on primary (fundamental skill execution), secondary (scoring) and tertiary (match result) outcomes. While there is general agreement over measuring secondary and tertiary outcomes, literature does not show a unanimous agreement over a unique measure of the primary level of performance. The aim of this study was to investigate primary performance outcomes through an analysis of temporal patterns. In particular, we were interested in verifying if changes in tertiary performance outcomes may be related to changes in primary ones. We selected three soccer matches played by a top club during the Serie A league over the 2012-2013 seasonin which there was a change in match result between *rst and second half (tertiary level of performance). The methodological approach was based on observational design, supported by digital recordings and computer analysis. Data were analyzed with theme 6 beta software, which detects the temporal and sequential structure of datasets, revealing repeated patterns that may regularly or irregularly occur within a period of observation (Tpatterns). Striking di+erences were found comparing first and second half temporal patterns, especially when the *nal match outcome showed an improvement of the first half ’s one. Our results suggest that 'eme software and T-pattern enhance research opportunities by identifying a useful tool to study the link between primary and tertiary level of performance, making this an e+ective research and support instrument for sports analysis

    T-Pattern Analysis and Cognitive Load Manipulation to Detect Low-Stake Lies: An Exploratory Study

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    Deception has evolved to become a fundamental aspect of human interaction. Despite the prolonged efforts in many disciplines, there has been no definite finding of a univocally ‚Äúdeceptive‚ÄĚ signal. This work proposes an approach to deception detection combining cognitive load manipulation and T-pattern methodology with the objective of: (a) testing the efficacy of dual task-procedure in enhancing differences between truth tellers and liars in a low-stakes situation; (b) exploring the efficacy of T-pattern methodology in discriminating truthful reports from deceitful ones in a low-stakes situation; (c) setting the experimental design and procedure for following research. We manipulated cognitive load to enhance differences between truth tellers and liars, because of the low-stakes lies involved in our experiment. We conducted an experimental study with a convenience sample of 40 students. We carried out a first analysis on the behaviors‚Äô frequencies coded through the observation software, using SPSS (22). The aim was to describe shape and characteristics of behavior‚Äôs distributions and explore differences between groups. Datasets were then analyzed with Theme 6.0 software which detects repeated patterns (T-patterns) of coded events (non-verbal behaviors) that regularly or irregularly occur within a period of observation. A descriptive analysis on T-pattern frequencies was carried out to explore differences between groups. An in-depth analysis on more complex patterns was performed to get qualitative information on the behavior structure expressed by the participants. Results show that the dual-task procedure enhances differences observed between liars and truth tellers with T-pattern methodology; moreover, T-pattern detection reveals a higher variety and complexity of behavior in truth tellers than in liars. These findings support the combination of cognitive load manipulation and T-pattern methodology for deception detection in low-stakes situations, suggesting the testing of directional hypothesis on a larger probabilistic sample of populationThe authors are gratefully acknowledge the support of two Spanish government projects (Ministerio de Econom√≠a y Competitividad): (1) La Actividad F√≠sica y el Deporte Como Potenciadores del Estilo de Vida Saludable: Evaluaci√≥n del Comportamiento Deportivo Desde Metodolog√≠as No Intrusivas [Grant No. DEP2015-66069-P, MINECO/FEDER, UE]; (2) Avances Metodol√≥gicos y Tecnol√≥gicos en el Estudio Observacional del Comportamiento Deportivo [Grant No. PSI2015-71947-REDP, MINECO/FEDER, UE]. In addition, they thank the support of the Generalitat de Catalunya Research Group, GRUP DE RECERCA I INNOVACI√ď EN DISSENYS (GRID). Tecnolog√≠a i Aplicaci√≥ Multimedia i Digital als Dissenys Observacionals [Grant No. 2017 SGR 1405]. Lastly, MTA also acknowledge the support of University of Barcelona (Vice-Chancellorship of Doctorate and Research Promotion).Peer Reviewe

    Longitudinal associations between mindfulness and well-being in people with multiple sclerosis

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    Background/Objective: Depression, anxiety, fatigue, and sleep problems are typical conditions reported in people with multiple sclerosis (MS), often resulting in a reduction of their quality of life (QOL) and well-being. Mindfulness is a multifaceted and complex construct that has been increasingly explored for its correlated to well-being. Despite preliminary evidence, longitudinal data about the impact of mindfulness on QOL in MS remain limited. In addition, Langerian mindfulness, one of the prominent approaches to mindfulness, is yet unexplored in this field. The study aims to examine the longitudinal relationships between two forms of mindfulness (Langerian and contemplative) and QOL, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep. Method: Within a larger randomized controlled trial of an online mindfulness-based stress reduction intervention, a cohort of 156 people with MS was recruited and assessed for both mindfulness constructs, QOL, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep problems. Assessments were repeated after 2 and after another 6 months. Results: Both mindfulness constructs were highly correlated with all investigated outcomes. Both Langerian and contemplative mindfulness predicted higher QOL, lower anxiety, depression, fatigue, and sleep, over time. Conclusions: In both approaches dispositional mindfulness is a protective factor against depression, anxiety, fatigue, and sleep in people with MS

    What is the role of the placebo effect for pain relief in neurorehabilitation? Clinical implications from the Italian consensus conference on pain in neurorehabilitation

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    Background: It is increasingly acknowledged that the outcomes of medical treatments are influenced by the context of the clinical encounter through the mechanisms of the placebo effect. The phenomenon of placebo analgesia might be exploited to maximize the efficacy of neurorehabilitation treatments. Since its intensity varies across neurological disorders, the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCP) summarized the studies on this field to provide guidance on its use. Methods: A review of the existing reviews and meta-analyses was performed to assess the magnitude of the placebo effect in disorders that may undergo neurorehabilitation treatment. The search was performed on Pubmed using placebo, pain, and the names of neurological disorders as keywords. Methodological quality was assessed using a pre-existing checklist. Data about the magnitude of the placebo effect were extracted from the included reviews and were commented in a narrative form. Results: 11 articles were included in this review. Placebo treatments showed weak effects in central neuropathic pain (pain reduction from 0.44 to 0.66 on a 0-10 scale) and moderate effects in postherpetic neuralgia (1.16), in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (1.45), and in pain associated to HIV (1.82). Moderate effects were also found on pain due to fibromyalgia and migraine; only weak short-term effects were found in complex regional pain syndrome. Confounding variables might have influenced these results. Clinical implications: These estimates should be interpreted with caution, but underscore that the placebo effect can be exploited in neurorehabilitation programs. It is not necessary to conceal its use from the patient. Knowledge of placebo mechanisms can be used to shape the doctor-patient relationship, to reduce the use of analgesic drugs and to train the patient to become an active agent of the therapy

    What is the role of the placebo effect for pain relief in neurorehabilitation? Clinical implications from the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation

    Get PDF
    Background: It is increasingly acknowledged that the outcomes of medical treatments are influenced by the context of the clinical encounter through the mechanisms of the placebo effect. The phenomenon of placebo analgesia might be exploited to maximize the efficacy of neurorehabilitation treatments. Since its intensity varies across neurological disorders, the Italian Consensus Conference on Pain in Neurorehabilitation (ICCP) summarized the studies on this field to provide guidance on its use. Methods: A review of the existing reviews and meta-analyses was performed to assess the magnitude of the placebo effect in disorders that may undergo neurorehabilitation treatment. The search was performed on Pubmed using placebo, pain, and the names of neurological disorders as keywords. Methodological quality was assessed using a pre-existing checklist. Data about the magnitude of the placebo effect were extracted from the included reviews and were commented in a narrative form. Results: 11 articles were included in this review. Placebo treatments showed weak effects in central neuropathic pain (pain reduction from 0.44 to 0.66 on a 0-10 scale) and moderate effects in postherpetic neuralgia (1.16), in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (1.45), and in pain associated to HIV (1.82). Moderate effects were also found on pain due to fibromyalgia and migraine; only weak short-term effects were found in complex regional pain syndrome. Confounding variables might have influenced these results. Clinical implications: These estimates should be interpreted with caution, but underscore that the placebo effect can be exploited in neurorehabilitation programs. It is not necessary to conceal its use from the patient. Knowledge of placebo mechanisms can be used to shape the doctor-patient relationship, to reduce the use of analgesic drugs and to train the patient to become an active agent of the therapy

    Social Emotions and Cognition: Shame, Guilt and Working Memory

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    The relation between cognition and emotion has been increasingly explored in literature but few studies have explored the relation between social emotions and cognitive performances. To this end, 60 undergraduate female students were assigned to a dual-task condition in order to test their working memory abilities. They were then randomly assigned to three different writing disclosure tasks: shame condition, guilt condition and neutral condition. They were finally assigned to a new dual-task condition in order to assess differences on cognitive performances between the emotional and the neutral conditions. Statistically significant differences of dual-task performances related to the shame, guilt and neutral writing conditions were found. Shame and guilt conditions were related to lower cognitive performances than neutral condition subjects. In particular, state shame was a significant predictor of impairment in working memory performances. Furthermore shame-prone individuals were found to perform lower in working memory tests than guilt-prone participants suggesting a greater interference of shame (as emotional experience and as personal predisposition on working memory than guilt- related condition

    L'enigma del rossore

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    Blushing is a universal, social and involuntary signal based on self-awareness. It is a puzzling phenomenon, still little understood. This social response indicates personal and interpersonal awareness with a strong communicative power. Elicitors of blushing are exposition of the self or unwanted attention. Blushing is caused by activation of beta-adrenergic receptors that seems to be related with a mediation of sympathetic system. Main theories about blushing underline its important function in everyday life. Links between blush and shame, embarrassment and anxiety are presented. At the present, different measuring instruments of blushing (physiological indexes vs. self-report) are not fully adequate. At last, different interventions are discussed
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