84 research outputs found

    Adenovirus serotype 5 E1A sensitizes tumor cells to NKG2D-dependent NK cell lysis and tumor rejection

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    The expression of the Adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) E1A oncogene sensitizes tumor cells to natural killer (NK) cell–mediated killing and tumor rejection in vivo. These effects are dependent on the ability of E1A to bind the transcriptional coadaptor protein p300. To test the hypothesis that E1A up-regulates ligands recognized by the NKG2D-activating receptor, we stably transfected the highly tumorigenic mouse fibrosarcoma cell line MCA-205 with Ad5-E1A or a mutant form of E1A that does not interact with p300 (E1A-Δp300). Ad5-E1A, but not E1A-Δp300, up-regulated the expression of the NKG2D ligand retinoic acid early inducible (RAE)-1, but not murine ULBP-like transcript 1, another NKG2D ligand, in four independently derived MCA-205 transfectants. The up-regulation of RAE-1 by E1A targeted MCA-205 tumor cells to lysis by NK cells, resulting in NKG2D-dependent tumor rejection in vivo. Moreover, the up-regulation of NKG2D ligands by E1A was not limited to mouse tumor cells, as E1A also increased the expression of NKG2D ligands on primary baby mouse kidney cells, human MB435S breast cancer cells, and human H4 fibrosarcoma cells

    Memory-Like NK Cells: Remembering a Previous Activation by Cytokines and NK Cell Receptors

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    Natural Killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic innate lymphoid cells serving at the front line against infection and cancer. In inflammatory microenvironments, multiple soluble and contact-dependent signals modulate NK cell responsiveness. Besides their innate cytotoxic and immunostimulatory activity, it has been uncovered in recent years that NK cells constitute a heterogeneous and versatile cell subset. Persistent memory-like NK populations that mount a robust recall response were reported during viral infection, contact hypersensitivity reactions, and after stimulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines or activating receptor pathways. In this review, we highlight recent findings on the generation, functionality, and clinical applicability of memory-like NK cells and describe common features in comparison to other recent concepts of memory NK cells. Understanding of these features will facilitate the conception and design of novel NK cell-based immunotherapies

    Harnessing Soluble NK Cell Killer Receptors for the Generation of Novel Cancer Immune Therapy

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    The natural cytotoxic receptors (NCRs) are a unique set of activating proteins expressed mainly on the surface of natural killer (NK) cells. The NCRs, which include three members; NKp46, NKp44 and NKp30, are critically involved in NK cytotoxicity against different targets, including a wide range of tumor cells derived from various origins. Even though the tumor ligands of the NCRs have not been identified yet, the selective manner by which these receptors target tumor cells may provide an excellent basis for the development of novel anti-tumor therapies. To test the potential use of the NCRs as anti-tumor agents, we generated soluble NCR-Ig fusion proteins in which the constant region of human IgG1 was fused to the extracellular portion of the receptor. We demonstrate, using two different human prostate cancer cell lines, that treatment with NKp30-Ig, dramatically inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Activated macrophages were shown to mediate an ADCC response against the NKp30-Ig coated prostate cell lines. Finally, the Ig fusion proteins were also demonstrated to discriminate between benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. This may provide a novel diagnostic modality in the difficult task of differentiating between these highly common pathological conditions

    Peripheral blood natural killer cell percentages in granulomatosis with polyangiitis correlate with disease inactivity and stage

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    Introduction: The role of CD3−CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is poorly understood. Recently, it has been shown that peripheral blood NK cells can kill renal microvascular endothelial cells, suggesting a pathogenic role of NK cells in this disease. So far, subset distribution, phenotype, and function of peripheral blood NK cells in relation to GPA disease activity have not been elucidated. Moreover, it is not known whether NK cells infiltrate GPA tissue lesions. Methods: Paraffin sections of GPA granulomas and controls were stained with anti-CD56 and anti-CD3 antibodies. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. NK cell degranulation was analyzed using cocultures of patient PBMCs with target cells and surface expression of CD107a. Clinical data were extracted from medical records. Statistical analysis was performed in an exploratory way. Results: CD56+ cells were not detectable in active granulomatous GPA lesions but were found frequently in granulomas from tuberculosis and sarcoidosis patients. In GPA, the proportion of NK cells among peripheral blood lymphocytes correlated negatively with the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS) (n = 28). Accordingly, NK cell percentages correlated positively with the duration of remission (n = 28) and were significantly higher in inactive GPA (BVAS = 0, n = 17) than in active GPA, healthy controls (n = 29), and inactive control diseases (n = 12). The highest NK cell percentages were found in patients with long-term remission and tapered immunosuppressive therapy. NK cell percentages >18.5 % of peripheral blood lymphocytes (n = 12/28) determined GPA inactivity with a specificity of 100 %. The differentiation into CD56dim and CD56bright NK cell subsets was unchanged in GPA (n = 28), irrespective of disease activity. Similar surface expression of the activating NK cell-receptors (NKp30, NKp46, and NKG2D) was determined. Like in healthy controls, GPA NK cells degranulated in the presence of NK cell receptor ligand bearing epithelial and lymphatic target cells. Conclusions: NK cells were not detectable in GPA granulomas. Peripheral blood NK cell percentages positively correlate with the suppression of GPA activity and could serve as a biomarker for GPA activity. Peripheral blood NK cells in GPA patients are mature NK cells with preserved immune recognition

    Human innate immune cell crosstalk induces melanoma cell senescence

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    Mononuclear phagocytes and NK cells constitute the first line of innate immune defense. How these cells interact and join forces against cancer is incompletely understood. Here, we observed an early accumulation of slan+^{+} (6-sulfo LacNAc) non-classical monocytes (slanMo) in stage I melanoma, which was followed by an increase in NK cell numbers in stage III. Accordingly, culture supernatants of slanMo induced migration of primary human NK cells in vitro via the chemotactic cytokine IL-8 (CXCL8), suggesting a role for slanMo in NK cell recruitment into cancer tissues. High levels of TNF-α and IFN-γ were produced in co-cultures of TLR-ligand stimulated slanMo and NK cells, whereas much lower levels were contained in cultures of slanMo and NK cells alone. Moreover, TNF-α and IFN-γ concentrations in slanMo/NK cell co-cultures exceeded those in CD14+^{+} monocyte/NK cell and slanMo/T cell co-cultures. Importantly, TNF-α and IFN-γ that was produced in TLR-ligand stimulated slanMo/NK cell co-cultures induced senescence in different melanoma cell lines, as indicated by reduced melanoma cell proliferation, increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase expression, p21 upregulation, and induction of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Taken together, we identified a role for slanMo and NK cells in a collaborative innate immune defense against melanoma by generating a tumor senescence-inducing microenvironment. We conclude that enhancing the synergistic innate immune crosstalk of slanMo and NK cells could improve current immunotherapeutic approaches in melanoma

    New twist on the regulation of NKG2D ligand expression

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    The NK cell–activating receptor NKG2D plays a prominent role in antitumor immune responses. Expression of the multiple NKG2D ligands must be tightly controlled to guarantee that NK cells attack tumors but not healthy cells. New data reveal a novel mechanism of posttranslational regulation of the mouse NKG2D ligand MULT1, in which MULT1 is ubiquitinated and degraded in healthy cells. In response to UV stress or heat shock, ubiquitination of MULT1 decreases and cell surface expression increases. Thus, targeting the ubiquitination machinery in cancer cells might increase the susceptibility of tumors to NK cell–mediated killing

    Redirecting T Cells to Ewing's Sarcoma Family of Tumors by a Chimeric NKG2D Receptor Expressed by Lentiviral Transduction or mRNA Transfection

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    We explored the possibility to target Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT) by redirecting T cells. To this aim, we considered NKG2D-ligands (NKG2D-Ls) as possible target antigens. Detailed analysis of the expression of MICA, MICB, ULBP-1, -2, and -3 in fourteen ESFT cell lines revealed consistent expression of at least one NKG2D-L. Thus, for redirecting T cells, we fused a CD3ζ/CD28-derived signaling domain to the ectodomain of NKG2D, however, opposite transmembrane orientation of this signaling domain and NKG2D required inverse orientation fusion of either of them. We hypothesized that the particularly located C-terminus of the NKG2D ectodomain should allow reengineering of the membrane anchoring from a native N-terminal to an artificial C-terminal linkage. Indeed, the resulting chimeric NKG2D receptor (chNKG2D) was functional and efficiently mediated ESFT cell death triggered by activated T cells. Notably, ESFT cells with even low NKG2D-L expression were killed by CD8pos and also CD4pos cells. Both, mRNA transfection and lentiviral transduction resulted in high level surface expression of chNKG2D. However, upon target-cell recognition receptor surface levels were maintained by tranfected RNA only during the first couple of hours after transfection. Later, target-cell contact resulted in strong and irreversible receptor down-modulation, whereas lentivirally mediated expression of chNKG2D remained constant under these conditions. Together, our study defines NKG2D-Ls as targets for a CAR-mediated T cell based immunotherapy of ESFT. A comparison of two different methods of gene transfer reveals strong differences in the susceptibility to ligand-induced receptor down-modulation with possible implications for the applicability of RNA transfection
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