98 research outputs found

    "Electro-clinical Syndromes" with onset in Paediatric Age. the highlights of the clinical-EEG, genetic and therapeutic advances

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    The genetic causes underlying epilepsy remain largely unknown, and the impact of available genetic data on the nosology of epilepsy is still limited. Thus, at present, classification of epileptic disorders should be mainly based on electroclinical features. Electro-clinical syndrome is a term used to identify a group of clinical entities showing a cluster of electro-clinical characteristics, with signs and symptoms that together define a distinctive, recognizable, clinical disorder. These often become the focus of treatment trials as well as of genetic, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging investigations. They are distinctive disorders identifiable on the basis of a typical age onset, specific EEG characteristics, seizure types, and often other features which, when taken together, permit a specific diagnosis which, in turn, often has implications for treatment, management, and prognosis. Each electro-clinical syndrome can be classified according to age at onset, cognitive and developmental antecedents and consequences, motor and sensory examinations, EEG features, provoking or triggering factors, and patterns of seizure occurrence with respect to sleep. Therefore, according to the age at onset, here we review the more frequently observed paediatric electro-clinical syndrome from their clinical-EEG, genetic and therapeutic point of views

    Migraine treatment in developmental age: guidelines update

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    There is a serious lack of controlled studies on the pharmacological treatment of primary migraine in the developmental age; there is, consequently, an urgent need for new, evidence-based approaches to this long-neglected field of research. Moreover, previous studies have stated that the placebo response is greater in pediatric patients than in adults and that a reduction in the attack frequency in the absence of any pharmacological treatment is observed more frequently in pediatric migraine patients than in adults. Besides these preliminary considerations, the shorter duration of migraine attacks and other characteristic semeiological features of the clinical picture in children are such that the design of randomized controlled trial (RCT) is more problematic in the developmental age than in the adult. Bearing in mind all these weak points, the aim of this review was to summarize and update recent guidelines for the treatment of primary migraine in children and adolescents. The most recent guidelines are those published by the Italian Society for the study of Headache, the French Society for the study of Migraine and Headache, and the American Academy of Neurology. We have incorporated into these guidelines the results from the few, recent RCTs, clinical controlled trials, open-label studies, meta-analyses and reviews that have been published since 2004; owing to the lack of strong evidence in this field of research, we have sometimes even mentioned pilot noncontrolled studies, case series and expert opinions. Lastly, evidence was classified and the recommendations were categorized according to different levels

    Molecular characterization of a bladder pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma in an adult patient

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    Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma (PRMS) is a rare but highly aggressive soft tissue tumor, accounting for 3% of soft tissue sarcomas. PRMS is the most frequent subtype of RMS in adulthood and it is mainly located in the large muscles of the extremities, particularly the lower limbs and the trunk, more rarely in other locations especially in the bladder. At our knowledge, only six cases of adult pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma of the bladder have been reported in the literature. In this study, we report a case of PRMS of bladder with a very poor prognosis. In fact, the patient died a month after surgery. The tumor was characterized by poorly differentiated, medium-sized sometimes rhabdoid cells, mixed with large-sized and pleomorphic elements with evident anisonucleosis, and with large areas of necrosis. We used an extensive immunohistochemical panel to exclude other tumors much more frequently reported at this site. The positivity for myogenic markers such as actin, desmin, myogenin and MyoD1 allowed the correct diagnosis. Furthermore, since preliminary studies highlighted a series of specific molecular alterations in PMRS cell lines, we analyzed a panel of specific mutations and gene rearrangements by RT-PCR and FISH methods. We showed a copy gains of CCND1 and MALT genes in our samples, suggesting an accurate molecular characterization of PRMS to establish a better management of patients and new therapeutic opportunities

    Genotype-dependency of butyrate efficacy in children with congenital chloride diarrhea

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    Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by life-long, severe diarrhea with intestinal Cl - malabsorption. It results from a reduced activity of the down regulated in adenoma exchanger (DRA), due to mutations in the solute carrier family 26, member 3 (SLC26A3) gene. Currently available therapies are not able to limit the severity of diarrhea in CLD. Conflicting results have been reported on the therapeutic efficacy of oral butyrate. Methods. We investigated the effect of oral butyrate (100 mg/kg/day) in seven CLD children with different SLC26A3 genotypes. Nasal epithelial cells were obtained to assess the effect of butyrate on the expression of the two main Cl- transporters: DRA and putative anion transporter-1 (PAT-1). Results: A variable clinical response to butyrate was observed regarding the stool pattern and fecal ion loss. The best response was observed in subjects with missense and deletion mutations. Variable response to butyrate was also observed on SLC26A3 (DRA) and SLC26A6 (PAT1) gene expression in nasal epithelial cells of CLD patients. Conclusions: We demonstrate a genotype-dependency for butyrate therapeutic efficacy in CLD. The effect of butyrate is related in part on a different modulation of the expression of the two main apical membrane Cl- exchangers of epithelial cells, members of the SLC26 anion family. Trial registration. Australian New Zealand Clinical trial Registry ACTRN1261300045071

    L' efficacia degli incentivi agli investimenti in sicurezza.

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    Il quaderno fornisce un quadro assolutamente inedito sullo strumento degli Incentivi di Sostegno alle Imprese, i cosiddetti Bandi ISI, che sostengono le imprese che realizzano investimenti che migliorino le condizioni di sicurezza e di salute dei luoghi di lavoro. Idealmente la politica mira a un target di imprese caratterizzate da maggiore rischio, a causa della piccola dimensione o del tipo di lavorazione o ancora del settore produttivo, e fornisce un contributo a fondo perduto per realizzare investimenti che apportino una riduzione del rischio di infortunio o di quello di contrarre malattie professionali. Si tratta della prima volta in cui viene pubblicato un quadro completo del sistema di implementazione di questa politica gestita dall’Inail, quadro dotato di un ampio corredo di informazioni qualitative e quantitative. Questo è stato reso possibile per la piena collaborazione offerta dall’Istituto Nazionale per l’Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro (Inail) che nel proprio Piano delle attività di ricerca 2016-2018 aveva già intrapreso un percorso di ricerca che aveva come obiettivo la valutazione della sostenibilità e dell’efficacia degli interventi di prevenzione

    Seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae in patients awaiting heart transplant in Southern Italy

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    Background Bartonella henselae is the etiologic agent of cat-scratch disease. B. henselae infections are responsible for a widening spectrum of human diseases, although often symptomless, ranging from self-limited to life-threatening and show different courses and organ involvement due to the balance between host and pathogen. The role of the host immune response to B. henselae is critical in preventing progression to systemic disease. Indeed in immunocompromised patients, such as solid organ transplant patients, B. henselae results in severe disseminated disease and pathologic vasoproliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of B. henselae in patients awaiting heart transplant compared to healthy individuals enrolled in the Regional Reference Laboratory of Transplant Immunology of Second University of Naples. Methods Serum samples of 38 patients awaiting heart transplant in comparison to 50 healthy donors were examined using immunfluorescence assay. Results We found a B. henselae significant antibody positivity rate of 21% in patients awaiting heart transplant ( p = 0.002). There was a positive rate of 8% ( p > 0.05) for immunoglobulin (Ig)M and a significant value of 13% ( p = 0.02) for IgG, whereas controls were negative both for IgM and IgG antibodies against B. henselae . The differences in comorbidity between cases and controls were statistically different (1.41 ± 0.96 vs 0.42 ± 0.32; p = 0.001). Conclusions Although this study was conducted in a small number of patients, we suggest that the identification of these bacteria should be included as a routine screening analysis in pretransplant patients

    Biliverdin Protects against Liver Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Swine

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    Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) in organ transplantation remains a serious and unsolved problem. Organs that undergo significant damage during IRI, function less well immediately after reperfusion and tend to have more problems at later times when rejection can occur. Biliverdin has emerged as an agent that potently suppress IRI in rodent models. Since the use of biliverdin is being developed as a potential therapeutic modality for humans, we tested the efficacy for its effects on IRI of the liver in swine, an accepted and relevant pre-clinical animal model. Administration of biliverdin resulted in rapid appearance of bilirubin in the serum and significantly suppressed IRI-induced liver dysfunction as measured by multiple parameters including urea and ammonia clearance, neutrophil infiltration and tissue histopathology including hepatocyte cell death. Taken together, our findings, in a large animal model, provide strong support for the continued evaluation of biliverdin as a potential therapeutic in the clinical setting of transplantation of the liver and perhaps other organs

    Decellularized Human Dermal Matrix as a Biological Scaffold for Cardiac Repair and Regeneration.

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    The complex and highly organized environment in which cells reside consists primarily of the extracellular matrix (ECM) that delivers biological signals and physical stimuli to resident cells. In the native myocardium, the ECM contributes to both heart compliance and cardiomyocyte maturation and function. Thus, myocardium regeneration cannot be accomplished if cardiac ECM is not restored. We hypothesize that decellularized human skin might make an easily accessible and viable alternate biological scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering (CTE). To test our hypothesis, we decellularized specimens of both human skin and human myocardium and analyzed and compared their composition by histological methods and quantitative assays. Decellularized dermal matrix was then cut into 600-mm-thick sections and either tested by uniaxial tensile stretching to characterize its mechanical behavior or used as three-dimensional scaffold to assess its capability to support regeneration by resident cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs) in vitro. Histological and quantitative analyses of the dermal matrix provided evidence of both effective decellularization with preserved tissue architecture and retention of ECM proteins and growth factors typical of cardiac matrix. Further, the elastic modulus of the dermal matrix resulted comparable with that reported in literature for the human myocardium and, when tested in vitro, dermal matrix resulted a comfortable and protective substrate promoting and supporting hCPC engraftment, survival and cardiomyogenic potential. Our study provides compelling evidence that dermal matrix holds promise as a fully autologous and cost-effective biological scaffold for CTE

    Identification of genetic variants associated with Huntington's disease progression: a genome-wide association study

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    Background Huntington's disease is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene, HTT. Age at onset has been used as a quantitative phenotype in genetic analysis looking for Huntington's disease modifiers, but is hard to define and not always available. Therefore, we aimed to generate a novel measure of disease progression and to identify genetic markers associated with this progression measure. Methods We generated a progression score on the basis of principal component analysis of prospectively acquired longitudinal changes in motor, cognitive, and imaging measures in the 218 indivduals in the TRACK-HD cohort of Huntington's disease gene mutation carriers (data collected 2008–11). We generated a parallel progression score using data from 1773 previously genotyped participants from the European Huntington's Disease Network REGISTRY study of Huntington's disease mutation carriers (data collected 2003–13). We did a genome-wide association analyses in terms of progression for 216 TRACK-HD participants and 1773 REGISTRY participants, then a meta-analysis of these results was undertaken. Findings Longitudinal motor, cognitive, and imaging scores were correlated with each other in TRACK-HD participants, justifying use of a single, cross-domain measure of disease progression in both studies. The TRACK-HD and REGISTRY progression measures were correlated with each other (r=0·674), and with age at onset (TRACK-HD, r=0·315; REGISTRY, r=0·234). The meta-analysis of progression in TRACK-HD and REGISTRY gave a genome-wide significant signal (p=1·12 × 10−10) on chromosome 5 spanning three genes: MSH3, DHFR, and MTRNR2L2. The genes in this locus were associated with progression in TRACK-HD (MSH3 p=2·94 × 10−8 DHFR p=8·37 × 10−7 MTRNR2L2 p=2·15 × 10−9) and to a lesser extent in REGISTRY (MSH3 p=9·36 × 10−4 DHFR p=8·45 × 10−4 MTRNR2L2 p=1·20 × 10−3). The lead single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in TRACK-HD (rs557874766) was genome-wide significant in the meta-analysis (p=1·58 × 10−8), and encodes an aminoacid change (Pro67Ala) in MSH3. In TRACK-HD, each copy of the minor allele at this SNP was associated with a 0·4 units per year (95% CI 0·16–0·66) reduction in the rate of change of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) Total Motor Score, and a reduction of 0·12 units per year (95% CI 0·06–0·18) in the rate of change of UHDRS Total Functional Capacity score. These associations remained significant after adjusting for age of onset. Interpretation The multidomain progression measure in TRACK-HD was associated with a functional variant that was genome-wide significant in our meta-analysis. The association in only 216 participants implies that the progression measure is a sensitive reflection of disease burden, that the effect size at this locus is large, or both. Knockout of Msh3 reduces somatic expansion in Huntington's disease mouse models, suggesting this mechanism as an area for future therapeutic investigation
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