7,468 research outputs found

    Factors influencing the adoption of whole farm plans : a Wairarapa case study : a thesis presented in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Applied Science in Agricultural Extension at Massey University

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    Hill country erosion is a serious environmental issue in New Zealand. After widespread damage from storms in 2004, Horizons Regional Council initiated the SLUI programme. This programme relies on whole farm plans (Whole Farm Business Plans) as the core tool to address erosion on hill country farms. Several regional councils in New Zealand, like Horizons, rely on whole farm plans and continue to seek ways to achieve a high level of voluntary adoption by farmers. A single case study was used to examine the phenomena of adoption of whole farm plans. This research answered the question: What factors influence the adoption by farmers of whole farm plans, and why these factors are influential? A review of historical farm plans identified plans most similar to Horizons Whole Farm Business Plans. These were located in the Wairarapa and this formed the case area. Farmers from two catchments in the Wairarapa, and key informants were interviewed to identify factors influencing adoption of farm plans. Findings from this study, in the main, support adoption diffusion literature for agricultural innovations. The specific mix of interrelated factors that influence the adoption of farm plans, and the reasons for their influence, were identified and described. Characteristics of this case included the widespread adoption of farm plans, and farmers' perceived farm plan implementation as secondary to the core farm business. Factors associated with the compatibility of the innovation to the core farm business and the credibility of the organisation delivering farm plans provided important influences on adoption of farm plans. The circumstances of the farmers and their farm did not strongly influence adoption in this study because farm plans are customised and take into account each individual's circumstances. For an innovation such as farm plans that is considered secondary to the core farm business, factors easing implementation were important. This was contributed to by the characteristics of the innovation and by the delivery and support from the organisation. Key people played a significant role in farmers' decisions to adopt a farm plan

    Fiddle tunes in eighteenth-century Wales

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    Conflicting Values in Law

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    Auer Deference: Doubling Down on Delegation\u27s Defects

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    Together with the better-known Chevron deference rule, the doctrine articulated in Auer v. Robbins two decades ago—which makes reasonable administrative constructions of ambiguous administrative rules binding on courts in most circumstances—has become a focal point for concerns about the expanding administrative state. Auer deference, even more than Chevron deference, enlarges administrative authority in ways that are at odds with basic constitutional structures and due process requirements. Objections to Auer have provided cogent reasons for why courts should not grant deference to administrative interpretations merely because an agency’s rule is unclear. The most commonly voiced objections, however, do not explain why Congress should be disabled in all instances from granting administrators discretionary authority over rule interpretation—even in settings that do not raise serious risks of partiality or unfair surprise in administrative construction. Examining the relationship between statutorily directed deference and constitutional-structural principles clarifies the essential underlying objection to Auer and the limits of that objection. When Congress by law confers discretionary authority that does not exceed its constitutional power to delegate functions to an administrator, courts should respect that assignment of authority, unless it violates other specific constitutional commands. Yet, when delegations are at most only arguably consistent with the Constitution, extending deference—especially expanding deference as Auer does in successive determinations—exacerbates delegations’ difficulties. A reinvigorated nondelegation doctrine would solve the major Auer problem directly, and elimination of Auer-like deference would clearly be preferable to retaining the doctrine in its current form. Short of that, demanding that the statutory basis for deference is clearly articulated would provide a modest first step in cabining problems associated with constitutionally questionable delegations of lawmaking authority. Those who embrace the rule of law, whether advocates or opponents of the modern administrative state, should support that step

    Looking With One Eye Closed: The Twilight of Administrative Law

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    n an article published recently in this Journal, Judge Loren Smith calls for a change in the focus of thinking and writing about administrative law. Attractive though his general themes are, in developing them Judge Smith passes much too quickly over two important points: the difficulty of arriving at political consensus, and the importance to political consensus of exactly those processes to which Smith objects

    Cost and Performance of Automotive Emission Control Technologies

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    The problem at hand is to investigate the near-term commercial feasibility of a wide range of automotive emission control technologies. The central issues can best be explained in terms of the emission control characteristics of each technology and their costs. Governmentally established emission control standards may be viewed as constraints on the use of a given vehicle and engine design. Either the technology meets the standard in use or it will not be sold. Emission control technologies that show promise of near-term manufacturability will be identified. Then, without presuming what future emission standards will be, the emission characteristics of example vehicle-engine combinations will be listed. Technologies that are acceptable, given a specified emission standard, can then be identified by a process of elimination. The approach to identifying the relevant costs associated with a given technology is not as clear cut. One would like to think that the most basic question governing the adoption of a given feasible technology is, "Will it be purchased by the public?" The second part of this paper will discuss the impact of pollution control technology on the economic decisions facing the new car customer. The cost considered by the rational new car consumer involves more than first cost. Other important factors include maintenance, operating expenses, resale value, and financing charges. Since resale value and financing charges are highly time dependent, it is possible that a new car purchaser's decision on which technology to buy may depend on how long he plans to keep the car. A cost annualization procedure will thus be developed which considers these factors
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